Interstate Commerce Commission

The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) was a regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. The agency's original purpose was to regulate railroads (and later trucking) to ensure fair rates, to eliminate rate discrimination, and to regulate other aspects of common carriers, including interstate bus lines and telephone companies. The agency was abolished in 1995, and its remaining functions were transferred to the Surface Transportation Board.

The Commission's five members were appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate; the commission was authorized to investigate violations of the Act and order the cessation of wrongdoing. However, ICC orders required an order by a federal court to become effective. The Interstate Commerce Act was the first independent regulatory body (or so-called Fourth Branch), as well as the first regulation of big business in the U.S.

Read more about Interstate Commerce Commission:  Creation, Initial Implementation and Legal Challenges, Expansion of ICC Authority, Esch–Cummins Act: Consolidation, Later Years, Abolition, Legacy, Racial Integration of Transport

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