The Indonesian Army (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia Angkatan Darat, TNI–AD), the land component of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, has an estimated strength of 233,000 regular personnel. The force's history began in 1945 when the Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) "Civil Security Forces" served as paramilitary and police.
Since the nation's independence struggle, the Indonesian Army has been involved in many operations involving foreign powers such as the incorporation of Western New Guinea, the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, and the annexation of East Timor, as well as internal counter-insurgency operations in Aceh Maluku and Papua. The role of the army has sometimes been marred by controversies; it has been blamed for numerous human rights violations, especially in West Papua, East Timor and Aceh.
The Indonesia Army comprises the headquarters and associated units, the military area commands, a strategic reserve command KOSTRAD, a special forces command Kopassus, and other formations and units. The force has grown over the years; in July 1976 the army was estimated to consist of 180,000 personnel, one armoured cavalry brigade, part of Kostrad (one tank battalion, plus support units), 14 infantry brigades (90 infantry, 1 para, 9 artillery, 11 anti-aircraft, and 9 engineer battalions) of which three of the brigades were in Kostrad, two airborne brigades totaling six battalions, also part of Kostrad, one independent tank battalion, 7 independent armoured cavalry battalions, and four independent para-commando battalions.
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“The inference is, that God has restated the superiority of the West. God always does like that when a thousand white people surround one dark one. Dark people are always bad when they do not admit the Divine Plan like that. A certain Javanese man who sticks up for Indonesian Independence is very lowdown by the papers, and suspected of being a Japanese puppet.”
—Zora Neale Hurston (18911960)
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—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)