- In intellectual property law an eponym can refer to a genericized trademark or brand name, a form of metonymy.
- Both in ancient Greece and independently among the Hebrews, tribes often took the name of a legendary leader (as Achaeus for Achaeans, or Dorus for Dorians). The eponym gave apparent meaning to the mysterious names of tribes, and sometimes, as in the Sons of Noah, provided a primitive attempt at ethnology as well, in the genealogical relationships of eponymous originators.
- Places and towns can also be given an eponymous name through a relationship (real or imagined) to an important figure. Peloponnesus, for instance, was said to derive its name from the Greek god Pelops. In historical times, new towns have often been named (and older communities renamed) after their founders, discoverers, or after notable individuals. Examples include Vancouver, British Columbia, named after the explorer George Vancouver; and Prince Albert, Saskatchewan, originally called Isbister's Settlement but renamed after Queen Victoria's husband and consort in 1866.
- In science and technology, discoveries and innovations are often named after the discoverer (or supposed discoverer) or to honour some other influential workers. Examples are Avogadro's number, the Diesel engine, meitnerium, Alzheimer's disease, and the Apgar score. For a discussion of the process see Stigler's law of eponymy.
- In (modern) art
- Some books, films, video games, and TV shows have one or more eponymous principal characters: Robinson Crusoe, Moll Flanders, Emma, the Harry Potter series, The Legend of Zelda series, I Love Lucy, for example.
- The term is also applied to music, usually with regard to record titles. For example, Blur's 1997 album was also titled Blur. Bad Company's first album Bad Company released in 1974 is another example that also contained a track that was a Rock Radio favourite of the same name, "Bad Company". Many other artists and bands have also served as eponyms of albums or singles, usually as their debut or second release. Some bands, such as the Tindersticks, Metallica, Led Zeppelin, Crowded House, Van Halen, Duran Duran, Bang Camaro, Santana, Living in a Box, and the Ramones, have released more than one and are thus referred to in other ways, including number and album art (e.g., The Blue Album). Every album, except 1969's The Chicago Transit Authority, 1978's Hot Streets and 1995's Night and Day: Big-Band, released by Chicago Transit Authority/Chicago has been the band name followed by a Roman numeral or numbered in some other manner. Peter Gabriel's first four long-play releases were all such (though the fourth was given a title for its US release). Another more common term is the self-titled album. The band R.E.M. titled their 1988 compilation CD Eponymous as a joke. The Swedish metal band Ghost titled their debut album Opus Eponymous. Brazilian artists usually self-title their albums; almost all the annual Roberto Carlos albums are eponymous. Self-titled albums are often indicated with the abbreviation "s/t," e.g., "They Might Be Giants (s/t)"
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