Energy Conversion Efficiency - Example of Energy Conversion Efficiency

Example of Energy Conversion Efficiency

Conversion process Energy efficiency
Electricity generation
Gas turbine up to 40%
Gas turbine plus steam turbine (combined cycle) up to 60%
Water turbine up to 90% (practically achieved)
Wind turbine up to 59% (theoretical limit)
Solar cell 6–40% (technology dependent, 15% most often, 85–90% theoretical limit)
Fuel cell up to 85%
World Electricity generation 2008 Gross output 39%, Net output 33%.
Engine/Motor
Combustion engine 10–50%
Electric motors 70–99.99% (above 200W); 50–90% (between 10–200W); 30–60% (small ones < 10W)
Natural process
Photosynthesis up to 6%
Muscle 14–27%
Appliance
Household refrigerators low-end systems ~ 20%; high end systems ~ 40–50%
Incandescent light bulb 0.7–5.1%, 5–10%
Light-emitting diode (LED) 4.2–14.9%, up to 35%
Fluorescent lamps 8.0–15.6%, 28%
Low-pressure sodium lamps 15.0–29.0%, 40.5%
Metal halide lamps 9.5–17.0%, 24%
Switched-mode power supply currently up to 95% practically
Electric shower 90–95% (overall it would be more efficient to use a heat pump, requiring less electric energy)
Electric heaters ~100% (essentially all energy is converted into heat)
others
Firearm ~30% (.300 Hawk ammunition)
Electrolysis of water 50–70% (80–94% theoretical maximum)

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