Emergen - Adverse Effects

Adverse Effects

According to Pfizer, sertraline is contraindicated in individuals taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors or the antipsychotic pimozide (Orap). Sertraline concentrate contains alcohol, and is therefore contraindicated with disulfiram (Antabuse). The prescribing information recommends that treatment of the elderly and patients with liver impairment "must be approached with caution". Due to the slower elimination of sertraline in these groups, their exposure to sertraline may be as high as three times the average exposure for the same dose.

Among the common adverse effects associated with sertraline and listed in the prescribing information, those with the greatest difference from placebo are nausea (25% vs. 11% for placebo), ejaculation failure (14% vs. 1% for placebo), insomnia (21% vs. 11% for placebo), diarrhea (20% vs. 10% for placebo), dry mouth (14% vs. 8% for placebo), somnolence (drowsiness) (13% vs. 7% for placebo), dizziness (12% vs. 7% for placebo), tremor (8% vs. 2% for placebo) and decreased libido (6% vs. 1% for placebo). Those that most often resulted in interruption of the treatment were drowsiness (7%), nausea (3%), diarrhea (2%) and insomnia (2%). Sertraline appears to be associated with microscopic colitis, a rare condition of unknown etiology.

Akathisia—that is, "inner tension, restlessness, and the inability to stay still"—caused by sertraline was observed in 16% of patients in a case series. This and other reports note that akathisia begins soon after the initiation of treatment or a dose increase; often, several hours after taking the medication. Akathisia usually disappears within several days after sertraline is stopped or its dose is decreased. In some cases, clinicians confused akathisia with anxiety and increased the dose of sertraline, causing further worsening of the patients' symptoms. Experts note that because of the possible link of akathisia with suicide and the distress it causes to the patient, "it is of vital importance to increase awareness amongst staff and patients of the symptoms of this relatively common condition".

Over more than six months of sertraline therapy for depression, patients showed an insignificant weight increase of 0.1%. Similarly, a 30-month-long treatment with sertraline for OCD resulted in a mean weight gain of 1.5% (1 kg). Although the difference did not reach statistical significance, the weight gain was lower for fluoxetine (Prozac) (1%) but higher for citalopram (Celexa), fluvoxamine (Luvox) and paroxetine (Paxil) (2.5%). Only 4.5% of the sertraline group gained a large amount of weight (defined as more than 7% gain). This result compares favorably with placebo, where, according to the literature, 3–6% of patients gained more than 7% of their initial weight. The large weight gain was observed only among female members of the sertraline group; the significance of this finding is unclear because of the small size of the group.

Over a two-week treatment of healthy volunteers, sertraline slightly improved verbal fluency but did not affect word learning, short-term memory, vigilance, flicker fusion time, choice reaction time, memory span, or psychomotor coordination. In spite of lower subjective rating, that is, feeling that they performed worse, no clinically relevant differences were observed in the objective cognitive performance in a group of people treated for depression with sertraline for 1.5 years as compared to healthy controls. In children and adolescents taking sertraline for six weeks for anxiety disorders, 18 out of 20 measures of memory, attention and alertness stayed unchanged. Divided attention was improved and verbal memory under interference conditions decreased marginally. Because of the large number of measures taken, it is possible that these changes were still due to chance. The unique effect of sertraline on dopaminergic neurotransmission may be related to these effects on cognition and vigilance.

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