Soil is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) that are primarily composed of minerals which differ from their parent materials in their texture, structure, consistency, colour, chemical, biological and other characteristics. It is the unconsolidated or loose covering of fine rock particles that covers the surface of the earth. Soil is the end product of the influence of the climate (temperature, precipitation), relief (slope), organisms (flora and fauna), parent materials (original minerals), and time. In engineering, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose rock material: this is the 'drift deposit' lying on top of the 'solid geology'. However, in horticulture, the term 'soil' is defined as the humic layer of topsoil, or the depth of regolith containing organic material that influences and has been influenced by plant roots and may range in depth from centimetres to many metres. Expressions such as lunar soil or Martian soil are commonly used for extraterrestrial regolith, even though there is no known biological component.
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Some articles on soil:
... the geotechnical engineering properties of soils and delineating soil stratigraphy ... It was initially developed in the 1950s at the Dutch Laboratory for Soil Mechanics in Delft to investigate soft soils ... Today, the CPT is one of the most used and accepted in soil methods for soil investigation worldwide ...
... Hans Jenny (7 February 1899 – 9 January 1992) was a soil scientist and expert on pedology (the study of soil in its natural environment), particularly the processes of soil formation ...
... Soils which contain high levels of particular clays, such as smectites, are often very fertile ... however, struggle to retain organic matter in the soils they work ... has declined in the low-clay soils of northern Thailand ...
... United Nations (FAO) developed a supra-national classification, also called World Soil Classification, which offers useful generalizations about soils pedogenesis in ... It was first published in form of the UNESCO Soil Map of the World (1974) (scale 1 5 M.) ... Originally developed as a legend to the Soil Map of the World, the classification was applied by United Nations sponsored projects ...
... elder (Iva) shrubs in lower elevations, where soil salinity was higher ... The rush shaded the soil, which decreased evapotranspiration, and in turn decreased soil salinity ... However, at higher elevations where soil salinity was lower, marsh elder fitness was decreased in the presence of the rush, due to increased competition for resources ...
More definitions of "soil":
- (noun): The part of the earth's surface consisting of humus and disintegrated rock.
- (noun): Material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow (especially with reference to its quality or use).
Example: "Good agricultural soil"
Synonyms: land, ground
- (verb): Make soiled, filthy, or dirty.
Example: "Don't soil your clothes when you play outside!"
Synonyms: dirty, begrime, grime, colly, bemire
Famous quotes containing the word soil:
“If the accumulated wealth of the past generations is thus tainted,no matter how much of it is offered to us,we must begin to consider if it were not the nobler part to renounce it, and to put ourselves in primary relations with the soil and nature, and abstaining from whatever is dishonest and unclean, to take each of us bravely his part, with his own hands, in the manual labor of the world.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“Green, green is El Aghir. It has a railway station,
And the wealth of its soil has borne many another fruit:
A mairie, a school and an elegant Salle de Fetes.
Such blessings, as I remarked, in effect, to the waiter,
Are added unto them that have plenty of water.”
—Norman Cameron (b. 1905)
“The founders of a new colony, whatever Utopia of human virtue and happiness they might originally project, have invariably recognized it among their earliest practical necessities to allot a portion of the virgin soil as a cemetery, and another portion as the site of a prison.”
—Nathaniel Hawthorne (18041864)