Soil is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) that are primarily composed of minerals which differ from their parent materials in their texture, structure, consistency, colour, chemical, biological and other characteristics. It is the unconsolidated or loose covering of fine rock particles that covers the surface of the earth. Soil is the end product of the influence of the climate (temperature, precipitation), relief (slope), organisms (flora and fauna), parent materials (original minerals), and time. In engineering, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose rock material: this is the 'drift deposit' lying on top of the 'solid geology'. However, in horticulture, the term 'soil' is defined as the humic layer of topsoil, or the depth of regolith containing organic material that influences and has been influenced by plant roots and may range in depth from centimetres to many metres. Expressions such as lunar soil or Martian soil are commonly used for extraterrestrial regolith, even though there is no known biological component.
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Some articles on soil:
... marsh elder (Iva) shrubs in lower elevations, where soil salinity was higher ... The rush shaded the soil, which decreased evapotranspiration, and in turn decreased soil salinity ... However, at higher elevations where soil salinity was lower, marsh elder fitness was decreased in the presence of the rush, due to increased competition ...
... Hans Jenny (7 February 1899 – 9 January 1992) was a soil scientist and expert on pedology (the study of soil in its natural environment), particularly the ...
... test (CPT) is a method used to determine the geotechnical engineering properties of soils and delineating soil stratigraphy ... It was initially developed in the 1950s at the Dutch Laboratory for Soil Mechanics in Delft to investigate soft soils ... is one of the most used and accepted in soil methods for soil investigation worldwide ...
... Soils which contain high levels of particular clays, such as smectites, are often very fertile ... tropical areas, however, struggle to retain organic matter in the soils they work ... for example, productivity has declined in the low-clay soils of northern Thailand ...
... of the United Nations (FAO) developed a supra-national classification, also called World Soil Classification, which offers useful generalizations about soils pedogenesis in ... It was first published in form of the UNESCO Soil Map of the World (1974) (scale 1 5 M.) ... Originally developed as a legend to the Soil Map of the World, the classification was applied by United Nations sponsored projects ...
More definitions of "soil":
- (noun): The geographical area under the jurisdiction of a sovereign state.
Example: "American troops were stationed on Japanese soil"
- (verb): Make soiled, filthy, or dirty.
Example: "Don't soil your clothes when you play outside!"
Synonyms: dirty, begrime, grime, colly, bemire
- (noun): The state of being covered with unclean things.
Synonyms: dirt, filth, grime, stain, grease, grunge
Famous quotes containing the word soil:
“The founders of a new colony, whatever Utopia of human virtue and happiness they might originally project, have invariably recognized it among their earliest practical necessities to allot a portion of the virgin soil as a cemetery, and another portion as the site of a prison.”
—Nathaniel Hawthorne (18041864)
“The same soil is good for men and for trees. A mans health requires as many acres of meadow to his prospect as his farm does loads of muck.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“I love, cherish, and respect women in my mind, in my heart, and in my soul. This love of women is the soil in which my life is rooted. It is the soil of our common life together. My life grows out of this soil. In any other soil, I would die. In whatever ways I am strong, I am strong because of the power and passion of this nurturant love.”
—Andrea Dworkin (b. 1946)