What is grapheme?

Grapheme

A grapheme is the smallest semantically distinguishing unit in a written language, analogous to the phonemes of spoken languages. A grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme. Graphemes include alphabetic letters, typographic ligatures, Chinese characters, numerical digits, punctuation marks, and other individual symbols of any of the world's writing systems.

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Some articles on grapheme:

Bengali Alphabet - Inconsistencies - The Vowel Grapheme Ri
... The grapheme called ri does not really represent a vowel phoneme in Bengali, rather the consonant-vowel combination /ri/ ... This inconsistency is also a remnant from Sanskrit, where the grapheme represents a retroflex approximant, a sound considered a vowel in Sanskrit ...
Character (symbol) - Grapheme
... The word was used in the sense of letter or grapheme by William Caxton, referring to the Phoenician alphabet, The Fenyces were the fyrst inuentours of caracteris dyfferencing that one fro that other, of whiche ... the word was used especially for foreign or mysterious graphemes (such as Chinese, Syriac, or Runic ones) as opposed to the familiar letters in particular of shorthand (in ...
Glyph - Typography
... in a particular typeface, of an element of written language, which could be a grapheme, or part of a grapheme, or sometimes several graphemes in ... In computing as well as typography, the term "character" refers to a grapheme or grapheme-like unit of text, as found in natural language writing systems (scripts) ... In typography and computing, the range of graphemes is broader than in a written language in other ways too a typographical font often has to cope with a range of different languages each of which ...
Correspondence Between Graphemes and Phonemes
... previous section, in languages that use alphabetic writing systems, the graphemes stand in principle for the phonemes (significant sounds) of the language ... amount of deviation from the ideal of exact grapheme–phoneme correspondence ... A phoneme may be represented by a multigraph (sequence of more than one grapheme), as the digraph sh represents a single sound in English (and sometimes a single grapheme ...
Portuguese Alphabet - Vowels - Nasalization
... Monophthongs Diphthongs Grapheme Pronunciation Grapheme Pronunciation -an, -am, -ân, -âm1 /ɐ̃/ -am2 /ɐ̃ũ/ -en, -em, -ên, -êm1 /ẽ/ -em, -ém2 /ɐ̃ĩ ~ ẽĩ/ -in, -im, -ín, -ím3 /ĩ/ -en-, -én-4 -o ...