The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories.
It takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. The VC is usually presented to the recipient or to their next of kin by the British monarch at an investiture held at Buckingham Palace. It is the joint highest award for bravery in the United Kingdom with the George Cross, which is the equivalent honour for valour not in the face of the enemy. However, the VC is higher in the order of wear and would be worn first by an individual who had been awarded both decorations (which has not so far occurred).
The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War. Since then, the medal has been awarded 1,356 times to 1,353 individual recipients. Only 13 medals, nine to members of the British Army, and four to the Australian Army, have been awarded since the Second World War. The traditional explanation of the source of the gunmetal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the siege of Sevastopol. Recent research has thrown doubt on this story, suggesting a variety of origins for the material actually making up the medals themselves.
Due to its rarity, the VC is highly prized and the medal has fetched over £400,000 at auction. A number of public and private collections are devoted to the Victoria Cross. The private collection of Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains over one-tenth of all VCs awarded. Following a 2008 donation to the Imperial War Museum, the Ashcroft collection went on public display alongside the museum's Victoria and George Cross collection in November 2010.
Since 1990, three Commonwealth countries that retain the Queen as head of state have instituted their own versions of the VC. As a result, the original Victoria Cross is sometimes referred to as the "Commonwealth Victoria Cross" or the "Imperial Victoria Cross", to distinguish it from the newer awards.
Other articles related to "victoria cross":
... of New Zealand Alfred Hulme - awarded the Victoria Cross Lindsay Merritt Inglis - Officer who served in Greece and Wstern Desert campaigns Edgar James "Cobber" Kain - RAF fighter ace (first pilot to win a DFC in ... with the 2NZEF Leonard Trent - World War II pilot, Victoria Cross recipient Lloyd Alan Trigg - World War II pilot, (only person awarded the VC solely on ...
... The Victoria Cross (VC) is a military decoration that may be bestowed upon members of the British or Commonwealth armed forces for acts of valour or gallantry performed in the face of the enemy ... When the Victoria Cross was initially established, Gurkhas, along with all other native troops of the British East India Company Army or the British Indian Army, were not eligible for the decoration ... serving in the Gurkha regiments of the Indian Army lost their eligibility for the Victoria Cross and they are now covered under the separate Indian ...
... Eight Old Cliftonians have won the Victoria Cross, one in the Second Boer War, five in the First World War (1914–1918), one in the Russian Civil War (North Russia ... – 23 November 1918) was a Royal Navy officer who took part in the Zeebrugge Raid and won the Victoria Cross ...
... be named after a particular recipient of the Victoria Cross, usually one with whom the unit is historically associated ...
... Victoria Cross Heroes ... ISBN 0-7553-1632-0 "RAF Victoria Cross Holders - WW1" ... Retrieved 2008-11-15 "RAF Victoria Cross Holders - WW2" ...
Famous quotes containing the words cross and/or victoria:
“As I was going by Charing Cross,
I saw a black man upon a black horse;
They told me it was King Charles the First”
—Unknown. As I was going by Charing Cross (l. 13)
“The men who are grandfathers should be the fathers. Grandpas get to do it right with their grandchildren.”
—Anonymous Grandparent. As quoted in Women and Their Fathers, by Victoria Secunda, ch. 2 (1992)