Following the end of the Second Congo War, and until December 6, 2006, transitional institutions were established, consisting of the former warring parties, as well as representatives of the non-belligerent opposition, and representatives of the civil society. As part of these institutions, a transitional government was put in place, led by a President, and four Vice-presidents, each of the latter coordinating a Governmental commission, regrouping a number of ministries. The pentarchy was often referred to as the "1 + 4". The Vice-Presidents were :
- Azarias Ruberwa (RCD): Policy, Defense and Security Commission. He represents one of the 2 major former rebel groups.
- Arthur Z'ahidi Ngoma
- Abdoulaye Yerodia Ndombasi (PPRD): Reconstruction and Development Commission. He represents the pre-peace agreement government.
- Jean-Pierre Bemba (MLC): Economic and Financial Commission. He represents one of the 2 major former rebel groups.
Under the 2006 constitution, which was promulgated in February 2006, the position of Vice-President becomes obsolete, after the inauguration of the first President of the DRC, elected democratically by direct universal suffrage. This inauguration occurred on December 6, 2006.
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