- Main articles: Adverse drug reaction and Adverse effect
In addition to (or in place of) the intended therapeutic effect of a treatment, a therapist may cause undesired (adverse) effects as well. When an adverse effect is weaker than the therapeutic effect, one commonly speaks of a "side effect".
An adverse effect may result from an unsuitable or incorrect dosage or procedure (which could be due to medical error). Some adverse effects occur only when starting, increasing or discontinuing a treatment. Using a drug or other medical intervention which is contraindicated may increase the risk of adverse effects. Patients sometimes quit a therapy because of its adverse effects. The severity of adverse effects ranges from nausea to death. Common adverse effects include alteration in body weight, change in enzyme levels, loss of function, or pathological change detected at the microscopic, macroscopic or physiological level.
Adverse effects may cause a reversible or irreversible change, including an increase or decrease in the susceptibility of the individual to other chemicals, foods, or procedures (e.g. drug interaction).
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Other articles related to "adverse effects, effect, adverse":
... However, some adverse effects were seen at doses that significantly exceeded the estimated daily intake (EDI), which is 1.1 mg/kg/day ... When the EDI is compared to the intake at which adverse effects are seen, known as the highest no adverse effects limit (HNEL), at 1500 mg/kg/day, there is a large ...
... no dose-limiting toxicities and no serious adverse effects ... In one clinical trial, headaches was the most commonly reported side effect of bevirimat, reported by four participants on bevirimat and one on the placebo ... The second most common reported side effect was throat discomfort by two participants on bevirimat ...
... in the UK, owing to the risk of serious adverse effects such as tolerance, dependence and withdrawal, as well as adverse effects on mood and cognition ... patients can develop increasing physical and psychological adverse effects, e.g ...
... For partial list of herbs with known adverse effects, see List of herbs with known adverse effects ... herbs are thought to be likely to cause adverse effects ... or lack of understanding of plant and drug interactions have led to adverse reactions that are sometimes life threatening or lethal." Proper double-blind clinical trials are needed to determine the safety ...
... The hypotheses made about the mechanism of action causing the toxiciy of cephaloridine are Reactive metabolites are formed by cytochromes P-450 or emerge from destabilization of the β –lactam ring ... Metabolic activation of the drugs might take place via cytochromes P-450, producing reactive metabolites ...
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