Sugar - Chemistry


Scientifically, sugar loosely refers to a number of carbohydrates, such as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or oligosaccharides. Monosaccharides are also called "simple sugars," the most important being glucose. Almost all sugars have the formula CnH2nOn (n is between 3 and 7). Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6. The names of typical sugars end with "-ose," as in "glucose", "dextrose", and "fructose". Sometimes such words may also refer to any types of carbohydrates soluble in water. The acyclic mono- and disaccharides contain either aldehyde groups or ketone groups. These carbon-oxygen double bonds (C=O) are the reactive centers. All saccharides with more than one ring in their structure result from two or more monosaccharides joined by glycosidic bonds with the resultant loss of a molecule of water (H2O) per bond.

Monosaccharides in a closed-chain form can form glycosidic bonds with other monosaccharides, creating disaccharides (such as sucrose) and polysaccharides (such as starch). Enzymes must hydrolyze or otherwise break these glycosidic bonds before such compounds become metabolized. After digestion and absorption the principal monosaccharides present in the blood and internal tissues include glucose, fructose, and galactose. Many pentoses and hexoses can form ring structures. In these closed-chain forms, the aldehyde or ketone group remains non-free, so many of the reactions typical of these groups cannot occur. Glucose in solution exists mostly in the ring form at equilibrium, with less than 0.1% of the molecules in the open-chain form.

Read more about this topic:  Sugar

Other articles related to "chemistry":

2007 In Science - Deaths
1930), American chemist known for his research on transition metal chemistry. 1918), German winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for pioneering work in the area of organometallic chemistry ...
Institute Of Chemistry, Slovak Academy Of Sciences
... The research activities of the Institute of Chemistry of the Slovak Academy of Sciences are aimed at the chemistry and biochemistry of saccharides ...
Chemistry - Practice - Professional Societies
... of Peru International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry Royal Australian Chemical Institute Royal Netherlands Chemical Society Royal Society of Chemistry Society ...
Chemistry - Monolayer Phases and Equations of State
... A variety of bidimensional phases can be detected, each separated by a phase transition ... During the phase transition, the surface pressure doesn't change, but the area does, just like during normal phase transitions volume changes but pressure doesn't ...
Wendell Meredith Stanley - Biography
... Stanley was born in Ridgeville, Indiana, and earned a BS in Chemistry at Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana ... in chemistry two years later ... His later accomplishments include writing the book "Chemistry A Beautiful Thing" and achieving his high stature as a Pulitzer Prize nominee ...

Famous quotes containing the word chemistry:

    For me chemistry represented an indefinite cloud of future potentialities which enveloped my life to come in black volutes torn by fiery flashes, like those which had hidden Mount Sinai. Like Moses, from that cloud I expected my law, the principle of order in me, around me, and in the world.... I would watch the buds swell in spring, the mica glint in the granite, my own hands, and I would say to myself: “I will understand this, too, I will understand everything.”
    Primo Levi (1919–1987)

    If thought makes free, so does the moral sentiment. The mixtures of spiritual chemistry refuse to be analyzed.
    Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)