In particle physics, the strong interaction (also called the strong force, strong nuclear force, or color force) is one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction and gravitation. At atomic scale, it is about 100 times stronger than electromagnetism, which in turn is orders of magnitude stronger than the weak force interaction and gravitation.
The strong interaction is observable in two areas: on a larger scale (about 1 to 3 femtometers (fm)), it is the force that binds protons and neutrons (nucleons) together to form the nucleus of an atom. On the smaller scale (less than about 0.8 fm, the radius of a nucleon), it is also the force (carried by gluons) that holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons and other hadron particles.
In the context of binding protons and neutrons together to form atoms, the strong interaction is called the nuclear force (or residual strong force). In this case, it is the residuum of the strong interaction between the quarks that make up the protons and neutrons. As such, the residual strong interaction obeys a quite different distance-dependent behavior between nucleons, from when it is acting to bind quarks within nucleons. The binding energy related to the residual strong force is used in nuclear power and nuclear weapons.
The strong interaction is thought to be mediated by gluons, acting upon quarks, antiquarks, and other gluons. Gluons, in turn, are thought to interact with quarks and gluons because all carry a type of charge called "color charge." Color charge is analogous to electromagnetic charge, but it comes in three types rather than one, and it results in a different type of force, with different rules of behavior. These rules are detailed in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD), which is the theory of quark-gluon interactions.
Other articles related to "strong interaction, strong interactions, interaction, strong":
... See also Color charge and Strong interaction According to QCD, quarks possess a property called color charge ... between quarks charged with different combinations of the three colors is called strong interaction, which is mediated by force carrying particles known as gluons this is ... The theory that describes strong interactions is called quantum chromodynamics (QCD) ...
... theory Spontaneous symmetry breaking Higgs mechanism Constituents Electroweak interaction Quantum chromodynamics CKM matrix Limitations Strong CP problem Hierarchy problem Neutrino ... particles (or gauge bosons) for the strong force between quarks, analogous to the exchange of photons in the electromagnetic force between two charged particles ... Since quarks make up the baryons and the mesons, and the strong interaction takes place between baryons and mesons, one could say that the color force is the source of the strong interaction, or ...
... The strong interaction, or strong nuclear force, is the most complicated interaction, mainly because of the way it varies with distance ... At distances greater than 10 femtometers, the strong force is practically unobservable ... Moreover, the force had to be strong enough to squeeze the protons into a volume that is 10−15 of that of the entire atom ...
... The residual effect of the strong force is called the nuclear force ... This "residual strong force", acting indirectly, transmits gluons that form part of the virtual pi and rho mesons, which, in turn, transmit the nuclear force ... The residual strong force is thus a minor residuum of the strong force which binds quarks together into protons and neutrons ...
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