The ectospermalege is visible externally in most bed bug species, giving the male a target through which to impale the female. In species without an externally visible ectospermalege, traumatic insemination takes place over a wide range of the body surface.
Exactly why males 'comply' with this aspect of female control over the site of mating is unclear, especially as male P. cavernis appear to be able to penetrate the abdomen at a number of points independent of the presence of an ectospermalege. One possibility is that mating outside the ectospermalege reduces female fecundity to such an extent that the mating male's paternity is significantly reduced ... The ectospermalege appears to act as a mating guide, directing the male's copulatory interest, and therefore damage, to a restricted area of the female's abdomen.
The spermalege structure serves to reduce the wounding and immunological costs of traumatic insemination. The piercing wound typically occurs in the exocuticle of the mesospermalege, and is repaired by "scarring substance" developed in the epidermis. At least nine species of bacteria and fungi have been identified from the male intromittent organ, and the mesospermalege reduces the likelihood of infection from such pathogenic organisms.
Read more about this topic: Spermalege
Other articles related to "function, functions":
... In general, an integral over a set E of a function f is written Here x need not be a real number, but can be another suitable quantity, for instance, a vector in R3 ... Just as the definite integral of a positive function of one variable represents the area of the region between the graph of the function and the x-axis, the double integral of a positive function of ... can be obtained via the triple integral — the integral of a function in three variables — of the constant function f(x, y, z) = 1 over the above mentioned region between the surface and the ...
... Some integrals cannot be found exactly, some require special functions which themselves are a challenge to compute, and others are so complex that finding the exact answer is too slow ... divides the integration range into, say, 16 equal pieces, and computes function values ... Spaced function values x −2.00 −1.50 −1.00 −0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 f(x) 2.22800 2.45663 2.67200 2.32475 0.64400 −0.92575 −0.94000 −0.16963 0.836 ...
... Let f be a continuous real-valued function defined on a closed interval ... Let F be the function defined, for all x in, by Then, F is continuous on, differentiable on the open interval (a, b), and for all x in (a, b) ... Let f be a real-valued function defined on a closed interval that admits an antiderivative g on ...
... and integration are inverse operations if a continuous function is first integrated and then differentiated, the original function is retrieved ... of calculus, allows one to compute integrals by using an antiderivative of the function to be integrated ...
... For instance, a sequence of functions can frequently be constructed that approximate, in a suitable sense, the solution to a problem ... Then the integral of the solution function should be the limit of the integrals of the approximations ... However, many functions that can be obtained as limits are not Riemann integrable, and so such limit theorems do not hold with the Riemann integral ...
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