Signed Curvature

Some articles on signed curvature:

Curvature of Plane Curves - Signed Curvature
... The sign of the signed curvature k indicates the direction in which the unit tangent vector rotates as a function of the parameter along the curve ... The signed curvature depends on the particular parametrization chosen for a curve ... More precisely, the signed curvature depends only on the choice of orientation of an immersed curve ...

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    I remember a very important lesson that my father gave me when I was twelve or thirteen. He said, “You know, today I welded a perfect seam and I signed my name to it.” And I said, “But, Daddy, no one’s going to see it!” And he said, “Yeah, but I know it’s there.” So when I was working in kitchens, I did good work.
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