Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba ( listen) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, Scotland constitutes over 790 islands including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
Edinburgh, the country's capital and second largest city, is one of Europe's largest financial centres. Edinburgh was the hub of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Glasgow, Scotland's largest city, was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third largest city in Scotland, the title of Europe's oil capital.
The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707, although it had been in a personal union with the kingdoms of England and Ireland since James VI of Scotland succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603. On 1 May 1707, Scotland entered into an incorporating political union with England to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain. This union resulted from the Treaty of Union agreed in 1706 and enacted by the twin Acts of Union passed by the Parliaments of both countries, despite popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow and elsewhere.
Scotland's legal system continues to be separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, and Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in public and private law. The continued existence of legal, educational and religious institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the Union. In 1999, a devolved legislature, the Scottish Parliament, was reconvened with authority over many areas of home affairs following a successful referendum in 1997. In 2011, the Scottish National Party (SNP) won an overall majority in parliament and intends to hold a referendum on independence in the autumn of 2014.
Other articles related to "scotland":
... Main article National symbols of Scotland The national flag of Scotland, known as the Saltire or St ... nation's floral emblem (celebrated in the song, The Thistle o' Scotland), 6 April 1320 statement of political independence the Declaration of Arbroath, the textile pattern tartan that often signifies ... there is no official National anthem of Scotland, Flower of Scotland is played on special occasions and sporting events such as football and rugby matches involving the Scotland national teams and ...
... The Firth of Tay (Scottish Gaelic Linne Tatha) is a firth in Scotland between the council areas of Fife, Perth and Kinross, the City of Dundee and Angus, into which Scotland's largest river in ... and named by him after the one in Scotland ...
... Renfrewshire is home to Scotland's second busiest airport, Glasgow International Airport, at Abbotsinch between Paisley and Renfrew ... just east of Langbank, and is a major artery between northwest and southwest Scotland, via the Erskine Bridge ... one of the busiest transport infrastructures in Scotland, and is frequently congested ...
... Forty days after she had originally sailed from Gdynia, Orzeł made landfall, off the east coast of Scotland ... She lay on the bottom until emergency repairs were made to the radio, then surfaced to transmit a message in English ...
... part of the New Model Army was transferred to Scotland to fight Scottish Covenanters at the start of the Third English Civil War ...
Famous quotes containing the word scotland:
“The second sight possessed by the Highlanders in Scotland is actually a foreknowledge of future events. I believe they possess this gift because they dont wear trousers.”
—G.C. (Georg Christoph)
“The state of monarchy is the supremest thing upon earth: for kings are not only Gods Lieutenants upon earth, and sit upon Gods throne, but even by God himself they are called gods.”
—James I of England, James VI of Scotland (15661625)
“Four and twenty at her back
And they were a clad out in green;
Tho the King of Scotland had been there
The warst o them might hae been his Queen.
On we lap and awa we rade
Till we cam to yon bonny ha
Whare the roof was o the beaten gold
And the floor was o the cristal a.”
—Unknown. The Wee Wee Man (l. 2128)