Saterland Frisian Language - Phonetics and Phonology - Consonants


Plosives: Today, voiced plosives in the syllable coda are usually terminally devoiced. Especially older speakers though may use undevoiced codae.

Grapheme Phoneme Example Notes
p Pik (pitch)
t Toom (bridle)
k koold (cold)
b Babe (father) Occasionally voiced in syllable coda
d Dai (day) May be voiced in syllable coda by older speakers
g Gäize (goose) A realization especially used by younger speakers instead of .


Grapheme Phoneme Example Notes
g Gäize (goose), Ploug (plough) Voiced velar fricative, realised unvoiced in the syllable coda and before an unvoiced consonant. Younger speakers show a tendency towards using the plosive instead of like in German language; this development is however not yet reported in most scientific studies.
f Fjúur (fire) Realised voicedly by a suffix: ljoof - ljowe (dear - love)
w Woater (water) Normally a voiced labio-dental fricative like in German, after u it is however realised as bilabial semi-vowel (see below).
v iek skräive (I scream) Realised voicelessly before voiceless consonants: du skräifst (you scream)
s säike (to seek), zuuzje (to sough) Voiced in the syllable onset is unusual for Frisian dialects and also rare in Saterlandic. There is no known minimal pair s - z, therefore /z/ is probably not a phoneme. Younger speakers tend to use but . This development is however not yet reported in most scientific studies.
ch truch (through) Only in syllable nucleus and coda.
h hoopje (to hope) Only in onset.

Other consonants:

Grapheme Phoneme Example Notes
m Moud (courage)
n näi (new)
ng sjunge (to sing)
j Jader (udder)
l Lound (land)
r Roage (rye) Traditionally a rolled or simple alveolar in onsets and between vowels, after vowels or in the coda it becomes . Younger speakers tend to use uvular instead. This development is however not yet reported in most scientific studies.
w Kiuwe (chin) Similar to English, this is realised as bilabial semi-vowel only after u.

Read more about this topic:  Saterland Frisian Language, Phonetics and Phonology

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