Early work on the study of the chemistry of rutherfordium focused on gas thermochromatography and measurement of relative deposition temperature adsorption curves. The initial work was carried out at Dubna in an attempt to reaffirm their discovery of the element. Recent work is more reliable regarding the identification of the parent rutherfordium radioisotopes. The isotope 261mRf has been used for these studies. The experiments relied on the expectation that rutherfordium would begin the new 6d series of elements and should therefore form a volatile tetrachloride due to the tetrahedral nature of the molecule. Rutherfordium(IV) chloride is more volatile than its lighter homologue hafnium(IV) chloride (HfCl4) because its bonds are more covalent.
A series of experiments confirmed that rutherfordium behaves as a typical member of group 4, forming a tetravalent chloride (RfCl4) and bromide (RfBr4) as well as an oxychloride (RfOCl2). A decreased volatility was observed for RfCl4 when potassium chloride is provided as the solid phase instead of gas, highly indicative of the formation of nonvolatile K2RfCl6 mixed salt.
Other articles related to "gas phase, phase":
... Second, charge transfer between a gas phase ion and analyte on the surface in this case the solvent ion is evaporated before reaching the sample surface ... Third, charge transfer between a gas phase ion and a gas phase analyte molecule ... to DART’s ionization mechanism, in that there is a charge transfer that occurs in the gas phase ...
... For equilibria in a gas phase, fugacity, f, is used in place of activity ... Expressions for equilibrium constants in the gas phase then resemble the expression for solution equilibria with fugacity coefficient in place of activity coefficient ...
... illustrate the role of hydration in aqueous-phase Brønsted acidity ... a weak acid in aqueous solution (pKa = 3.15) but a very weak acid in the gas phase (Epa (F−) = 1554 kJ/mol) the fluoride ion is as strong a base as SiH3− in the gas phase, but its basicity is reduced in aqueous ... for the hydroxide ion (Epa = 1635 kJ/mol), one of the strongest known proton acceptors in the gas phase ...
... When the liquid forms an interface with a gas phase, a molecule on the border has quite different physical properties due to the unbalance of attracting forces ... However, relatively fewer number of molecules in the gas phase above the interface than condensed liquid phase makes overall sum of forces applied to the surface molecule direct inside of the ... migrate to the liquid surface bordering gas phase until an external force disperse the accumulated molecules from the interface or surface is fully occupied and thus cannot accommodate extra molecules ...
... that use lasers to assess the concentration or amount of a species in gas phase by absorption spectrometry (AS) ... great potential for detection and monitoring of constituents in gas phase ... for quantitative assessments of atoms and molecules in gas phase ...
Famous quotes containing the words phase and/or gas:
“The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-linethe relation of the darker to the lighter races of men in Asia and Africa, in America and the islands of the sea. It was a phase of this problem that caused the Civil War.”
—W.E.B. (William Edward Burghardt)
“Droning a drowsy syncopated tune,
Rocking back and forth to a mellow croon,
I heard a Negro play.
Down on Lenox Avenue the other night
By the pale dull pallor of an old gas light”
—Langston Hughes (19021967)