Rutherfordium - Experimental Chemistry - Gas Phase

Gas Phase

Early work on the study of the chemistry of rutherfordium focused on gas thermochromatography and measurement of relative deposition temperature adsorption curves. The initial work was carried out at Dubna in an attempt to reaffirm their discovery of the element. Recent work is more reliable regarding the identification of the parent rutherfordium radioisotopes. The isotope 261mRf has been used for these studies. The experiments relied on the expectation that rutherfordium would begin the new 6d series of elements and should therefore form a volatile tetrachloride due to the tetrahedral nature of the molecule. Rutherfordium(IV) chloride is more volatile than its lighter homologue hafnium(IV) chloride (HfCl4) because its bonds are more covalent.

A series of experiments confirmed that rutherfordium behaves as a typical member of group 4, forming a tetravalent chloride (RfCl4) and bromide (RfBr4) as well as an oxychloride (RfOCl2). A decreased volatility was observed for RfCl4 when potassium chloride is provided as the solid phase instead of gas, highly indicative of the formation of nonvolatile K2RfCl6 mixed salt.

Read more about this topic:  Rutherfordium, Experimental Chemistry

Other articles related to "gas phase, phase":

Proton Affinity - Hydration
... solution (pKa = 3.15) but a very weak acid in the gas phase (Epa (F−) = 1554 kJ/mol) the fluoride ion is as strong a base as SiH3− in the gas phase ... of the strongest known proton acceptors in the gas phase ... a first approximation, the proton affinity of a base in the gas phase can be seen as offsetting (usually only partially) the extremely favorable hydration energy ...
Keq - Types of Equilibrium Constants - Gas Phase Equilibria
... For equilibria in a gas phase, fugacity, f, is used in place of activity ... Expressions for equilibrium constants in the gas phase then resemble the expression for solution equilibria with fugacity coefficient in place of activity coefficient and ...
Desorption Electrospray Ionization - Principle of Operation - Ionization Mechanism
... Second, charge transfer between a gas phase ion and analyte on the surface in this case the solvent ion is evaporated before reaching the sample surface ... Third, charge transfer between a gas phase ion and a gas phase analyte molecule ... ionization mechanism, in that there is a charge transfer that occurs in the gas phase ...
Maximum Bubble Pressure Method - Background
... When the liquid forms an interface with a gas phase, a molecule on the border has quite different physical properties due to the unbalance of attracting forces by the neighboring molecules ... However, relatively fewer number of molecules in the gas phase above the interface than condensed liquid phase makes overall sum of forces applied to the surface molecule direct inside of the liquid and ... migrate to the liquid surface bordering gas phase until an external force disperse the accumulated molecules from the interface or surface is fully occupied and thus cannot accommodate extra molecules ...
Laser Absorption Spectrometry
... assess the concentration or amount of a species in gas phase by absorption spectrometry (AS) ... potential for detection and monitoring of constituents in gas phase ... become the foremost used technique for quantitative assessments of atoms and molecules in gas phase ...

Famous quotes containing the words phase and/or gas:

    I had let preadolescence creep up on me without paying much attention—and I seriously underestimated this insidious phase of child development. You hear about it, but you’re not a true believer until it jumps out at you in the shape of your own, until recently quite companionable child.
    Susan Ferraro (20th century)

    Papa died in the gas chamber,
    slipping blue as an undressed minnow,
    gulping in the shower to wash the Jew off him.
    Anne Sexton (1928–1974)