Republic of Letters (Respublica literaria) is the long-distance intellectual community in the late 17th and 18th century in Europe and America. It fostered communication among the intellectuals of Age of Enlightenment, or "philosophes" as they were called in France. The Republic of Letters emerged in the 17th century as a self-proclaimed community of scholars and literary figures that stretched across national boundaries but respected differences in language and culture. These communities that transcended national boundaries formed the basis of a metaphysical Republic. Because of societal constraints on women, the Republic of Letters consisted mostly of men. As such, many scholars use "Republic of Letters" and "men of letters" interchangeably.
The circulation of handwritten letters was necessary for its function because it enabled intellectuals to correspond with each other from great distances. All citizens of the 17th century Republic of Letters corresponded by letter, exchanged published papers and pamphlets, and considered it their duty to bring others into the Republic through the expansion of correspondence.
The origin of this term remains unclear. The term first appeared in its Latin form in the 15th century and was used increasingly in the sixteenth and seventeenth, so that by the end of that century it featured in the titles of several important journals. Currently, the consensus is that Pierre Bayle first translated the term in his journal Nouvelles de la République des Lettres in 1664. But there are some historians who disagree and some have gone so far as to say that its origin dates back to Plato's Republic. Part of the difficulty in determining its origin is that unlike an academy or literary society, it existed only in the minds of its members.
Historians are presently debating the importance of the Republic of Letters in influencing the Enlightenment. Today, most Anglo-American historians, whatever their point of entry to debate, occupy a common ground: the Republic of Letters and the Enlightenment were distinct.
Other articles related to "republic of letters, of letters, republic":
... formed a network of knowledge exchange through the writing and sharing of letters and pamphlets known as the Republic of Letters ... One of the most famous contributors to this Republic was Henry Oldenburg, the secretary of the Royal Society of London ...
... While members of the Republic of Letters lived hermetically sealed from the outside world, talking only to one another, their enlightened successors ... Broman essentially sees The Republic of Letters as located in the cabinet and the Enlightenment in the market-place ... To these historians, the Republic of Letters are an outdated construction of the 17th century ...
Famous quotes containing the words republic of, letters and/or republic:
“Universal empire is the prerogative of a writer. His concerns are with all mankind, and though he cannot command their obedience, he can assign them their duty. The Republic of Letters is more ancient than monarchy, and of far higher character in the world than the vassal court of Britain.”
—Thomas Paine (17371809)
“There are other letters for the child to learn than those which Cadmus invented. The Spaniards have a good term to express this wild and dusky knolwedge, Grammatica parda, tawny grammar, a kind of mother-wit derived from that same leopard to which I have referred.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“Paper is cheap, and authors need not now erase one book before they write another. Instead of cultivating the earth for wheat and potatoes, they cultivate literature, and fill a place in the Republic of Letters. Or they would fain write for fame merely, as others actually raise crops of grain to be distilled into brandy.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)