Principles and Standards For School Mathematics

Principles and Standards for School Mathematics are guidelines produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in 2000, setting forth recommendations for mathematics educators. They form a national vision for preschool through twelfth grade mathematics education in the US and Canada. It is the primary model for standards-based mathematics.

The NCTM employed a consensus process that involved classroom teachers, mathematicians, and educational researchers. The resulting document sets forth a set of six principles (Equity, Curriculum, Teaching, Learning, Assessment, and Technology) that describe NCTM's recommended framework for mathematics programs, and ten general strands or standards that cut across the school mathematics curriculum. These strands are divided into mathematics content (Number and Operations, Algebra, Geometry, Measurement, and Data Analysis and Probability) and processes (Problem Solving, Reasoning and Proof, Communication, Connections, and Representation). Specific expectations for student learning are described for ranges of grades (preschool to 2, 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 12).

Read more about Principles And Standards For School MathematicsOrigins, Six Principles, Standards, Curriculum Focal Points, Controversy

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