**Principles and Standards for School Mathematics** are guidelines produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in 2000, setting forth recommendations for mathematics educators. They form a national vision for preschool through twelfth grade mathematics education in the US and Canada. It is the primary model for standards-based mathematics.

The NCTM employed a consensus process that involved classroom teachers, mathematicians, and educational researchers. The resulting document sets forth a set of six principles (Equity, Curriculum, Teaching, Learning, Assessment, and Technology) that describe NCTM's recommended framework for mathematics programs, and ten general strands or standards that cut across the school mathematics curriculum. These strands are divided into mathematics content (Number and Operations, Algebra, Geometry, Measurement, and Data Analysis and Probability) and processes (Problem Solving, Reasoning and Proof, Communication, Connections, and Representation). Specific expectations for student learning are described for ranges of grades (preschool to 2, 3 to 5, 6 to 8, and 9 to 12).

Read more about Principles And Standards For School Mathematics: Origins, Six Principles, Standards, Curriculum Focal Points, Controversy

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“Only conservatives believe that subversion is still being carried on in the arts and that society is being shaken by it.... Advanced art today is no longer a cause—it contains no moral imperative. There is no virtue in clinging to *principles and* standards, no vice in selling or in selling out.”

—Harold Rosenberg (1906–1978)

“In *mathematics* he was greater

Than Tycho Brahe, or Erra Pater:

For he, by geometric scale,

Could take the size of pots of ale;

Resolve, by sines and tangents straight,

If bread and butter wanted weight;

And wisely tell what hour o’ th’ day

The clock doth strike, by algebra.”

—Samuel Butler (1612–1680)

“And Guidobaldo, when he made

That grammar *school* of courtesies

Where wit and beauty learned their trade

Upon Urbino’s windy hill,

Had sent no runners to and fro

That he might learn the shepherds’ will.”

—William Butler Yeats (1865–1939)

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—Clark Gable (1901–1960)

“Indigenous to Minnesota, and almost completely ignored by its people, are the stark, unornamented, functional clusters of concrete—Minnesota’s grain elevators. These may be said to express unconsciously all the *principles* of modernism, being built for use only, with little regard for the tenets of esthetic design.”

—Federal Writers’ Project Of The Wor, U.S. public relief program (1935-1943)