In classical electromagnetism, **polarization density** (or **electric polarization**, or simply **polarization**) is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a dielectric material. When a dielectric is placed in an external electric field, its molecules gain electric dipole moment and the dielectric is said to be polarized. The electric dipole moment induced per unit volume of the dielectric material is called the electric polarization of the dielectric.

Polarization density also describes how a material responds to an applied electric field as well as the way the material changes the electric field, and can be used to calculate the forces that result from those interactions. It can be compared to magnetization, which is the measure of the corresponding response of a material to a magnetic field in magnetism. The SI unit of measure is coulombs per square metre, and polarization density is represented by a vector **P**.

Read more about Polarization Density: Definition, Polarization Density in Maxwell's Equations, Relation Between P and E in Various Materials, Polarization Ambiguity

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