Bonaparte instituted lasting reforms, including higher education, a tax code, road and sewer systems, and established the Banque de France (central bank). He negotiated the Concordat of 1801 with the Catholic Church, which sought to reconcile the mostly Catholic population to his regime. It was presented alongside the Organic Articles, which regulated public worship in France. Later that year, Bonaparte became President of the French Academy of Sciences and appointed Jean Baptiste Joseph Delambre its Permanent Secretary.
In May 1802, he instituted the Legion of Honour, a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry, to encourage civilian and military achievements; the order is still the highest decoration in France. His powers were increased by the Constitution of the Year X including: Article 1. The French people name, and the Senate proclaims Napoleon-Bonaparte First Consul for Life. After this he was generally referred to as Napoleon rather than Bonaparte.
Napoleon's set of civil laws, the Code Civil—now often known as the Napoleonic Code—was prepared by committees of legal experts under the supervision of Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, the Second Consul. Napoleon participated actively in the sessions of the Council of State that revised the drafts. The development of the code was a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law legal system with its stress on clearly written and accessible law. Other codes were commissioned by Napoleon to codify criminal and commerce law; a Code of Criminal Instruction was published, which enacted rules of due process. See Legacy.
Read more about this topic: Napoleon
Other articles related to "reform, reforms":
... crisis and kick-started Manmohan Singh’s economic reform process ... Rao government ushered in several reforms that are collectively termed as liberalisation in the Indian media ... Although, most of these reforms came because IMF required those reforms as a condition for loaning money to India in order to overcome the crisis ...
... strengthen national competitiveness, it is necessary to conduct regulatory reforms, without undermining environmental quality, to create a better business environment, reduce public ... the life cycle and characteristics of companies in carrying out regulatory reforms, and ensure that such reforms contribute to improvements in the daily lives of the general public ...
... on, Chinese higher education has undergone a series of reforms that have slowly brought improvement ... Structural reform of higher education consists of five parts reforms of education provision management investment recruitment and job-placement inner-institute management—the most difficult ... The reforms aim to provide higher education institutions more autonomy and the ability to better meet the needs of students ...
... Flurbereinigung is the German word used to describe land reforms in various countries, especially West Germany and Austria ... Unlike the land reforms carried out in the socialist countries of the Eastern Bloc, including East Germany, the idea of Flurbereiningung was not so much to distribute large quasi-feudal holdings to the formerly ... Another European country where this kind of land reform has been carried out is France (Remembrement) ...
... Kyōhō Reforms, 1716-1736 Kansei Reforms, 1790s Keiō Reforms, 1864-1867. ...
Famous quotes containing the word reforms:
“We shall one day learn to supersede politics by education. What we call our root-and-branch reforms of slavery, war, gambling, intemperance, is only medicating the symptoms. We must begin higher up, namely, in Education.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“Nothing divine dies. All good is eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind, and not for barren contemplation, but for new creation.”
—Ralph Waldo Emerson (18031882)
“Until politics are a branch of science we shall do well to regard political and social reforms as experiments rather than short-cuts to the millennium.”
—J.B.S. (John Burdon Sanderson)