The Mongols avoided the Bohemian forces, but defeated the Hungarians in the Battle of Mohi. But news that the Grand Khan Ögedei had died the previous year caused the descendants of the Grand Khan to return to the Mongol capital of Karakorum for the kurultai which would elect the next Khagan, and probably saved the Polish lands from being completely overrun by the Mongols.
The death of Duke Henry, who was close to unifying the Polish lands and reversing their fragmentation, set back the unification of Poland, and also meant the loss of Silesia, which would drift outside the Polish sphere of influence until the unification took place in the 14th century.
There were also later, smaller Mongol invasions of Poland (1259–1260 and 1287–1288).
In 1254 or 1255, Daniel of Galicia revolted against the Mongol rule. He repelled the initial Mongol assault under Orda's son Quremsa. In 1259, the Mongols returned under the new command of Burundai (Mongolian: Borolday). According to some sources, Daniel fled to Poland leaving his son and brother at the mercy of the Mongol army. He may have hidden in the castle of Galicia instead. The Mongols needed to secure Poland's aid to Daniel and war booty to feed the demand of their soldiers. Lithuanians also attacked Smolensk and menaced Torzhok, tributaries of the Golden Horde, in c. 1258. The Mongols sent a punitive expedition into Lithuania for this. The Lituanians appear to have not resisted them efficiently. Borolday again demanded Daniel to recruit more troops. After demolishing walls of all towns in Galicia and Volhyinia, in 1259, 18 years after the first attack to Poland, two tumens (20,000 men) from the Golden Horde, under the leadership of Berke, attacked Poland after raiding Lithuania. This attack was commanded by the young prince Nogai Khan and general Burundai. The Rus soldiers under Daniel's son, Lev, and brother, Vasily, joined the Mongol expedition. Lublin, Sieradz, Sandomierz, Zawichost, Kraków, and Bytom were ravaged and plundered by the Mongol army. Berke had no intention of occupying or conquering Poland. After this raid Pope Alexander IV tried without success to organize a crusade against the Tatars.
North-western Rus princes complained of the repeated attacks of the Kingdom of Poland to their Mongol masters. Nogai's army recruited troops from Rus principalities and it included Vlakh, Kipchak, and Alan soldiers. An unsuccessful raid followed in 1287, led by Talabuga and Nogai Khan. Lublin, Mazovia, Sandomierz and Sieradz were successfully raided, but they were defeated at Kraków. Despite this, Kraków was devastated. This raid consisted of less than one tumen, since the Golden Horde's armies were tied down in a new conflict which the Il-Khanate had initiated in 1284. The force sent was not sufficient to meet the full Polish army, nor did it have any siege engineers or equipment to breach city walls. It raided a few caravans, burned a few small towns, and fled when the Polish army was mustered.
Ozbek Khan and Janibek Khan warred with the powerful kingdom of Poland to secure their claim on western Rus (modern Belarus and Ukraine). However, Casimir III the Great submitted to the Golden Horde and undertook to pay tribute in order to avoid more conflicts. In his alliance with the Golden Horde, the seven Mongol princes were sent by Jani Beg khan to assist Poland.
In the coming centuries, the Kingdom of Poland (later, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) would have to deal with incursions and border conflicts by the Crimean Tatars, descendants of the Mongols.
In Kraków, the legacy of the Mongol invasions is found in the traditions of lajkonik and hejnał mariacki.
Read more about this topic: Mongol Invasion Of Poland
Other articles related to "aftermath":
... He was appointed ambassador to France, then took Lord Castlereagh's place as first plenipotentiary to the Congress of Vienna, where he strongly advocated allowing France to keep its place in the European balance of power ... On 2 January 1815 the title of his Knighthood of the Bath was converted to Knight Grand Cross upon the expansion of that order ...
... Movin' On" (1965, on the EP Got Live If You Want It!), "Doncha Bother Me" (1966, on Aftermath) and "No Expectations" (1968, on Beggars Banquet) ... from Out Of Our Heads), "High and Dry" and "Goin' Home" (1966) (from Aftermath), "Who's Driving Your Plane?" (1966), "Cool Calm and Collected", "Who's Been Sleeping Here" (1967) (from ... is particularly evident on the albums Aftermath (1966), Between the Buttons (1967) and Their Satanic Majesties Request (1967) ...
... The six-issue 52 Aftermath The Four Horsemen mini-series covers the Four Horsemen's battle with Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman ... Black Adam The Dark Age – In the aftermath of World War III, Black Adam tries to recoup his losses, for both his powers and personal life. 52 Aftermath The Crime Bible Five Lessons of Blood – The Question and Batwoman investigate crimes leading them deeper into the Crime Bible ...
... or Die Tryin' Released February 6, 2003 Label Shady, Aftermath, Interscope Format CD, LP, cassette, digital download 2 ... US 8,086,000 Worldwide 15,000,000 RIAA 6× Platinum ARIA 2 ...
... CD, LP, digital download 13 ... — 24 ... Shots Released 2003 Label Full Clip, Shady, Aftermath, Interscope Format CD, LP, digital download — — — — — — Get Rich or Die Tryin' / The Massacre ...
Famous quotes containing the word aftermath:
“The aftermath of joy is not usually more joy.”
—Mason Cooley (b. 1927)