Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria, structures within eukaryotic cells that convert the chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Most other DNA present in eukaryotic organisms is found in the cell nucleus.

Mitochondrial DNA can be regarded as the smallest chromosome. Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. In most species, including humans, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

The DNA sequence of mtDNA has been determined from a large number of organisms and individuals (including some organisms that are extinct), and the comparison of those DNA sequences represents a mainstay of phylogenetics, in that it allows biologists to elucidate the evolutionary relationships among species. It also permits an examination of the relatedness of populations, and so has become important in anthropology and field biology.

Read more about Mitochondrial DNAOrigin, Mitochondrial Inheritance, Structure, Replication, Use in Identification, History

Other articles related to "mitochondrial dna, mitochondrial, dna":

Maghrebis - Anthropology, Genetics and Linguistics - Genetic Evidence - Mitochondrial DNA
... genetic diversity of Northwest-African populations, evaluating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation and the results may be summarized as follows (data for 536 ...
Cynomya Cadaverina - Forensic and Medical Importance - Mitochondrial DNA Analysis
... In recent years, there have been numerous research projects on the topic of mitochondrial DNA analysis in fly larvae ... The mitochondrial DNA from the gut is analyzed and can lead to the identification of the corpse the maggot was feeding on as well as the species of the maggot itself ... Research concerning mitochondrial DNA analysis is currently being conducted on C ...
Genetic History Of The British Isles - Mitochondrial DNA
... In 2007, Bryan Sykes broke mitochondrial results into twelve haplogroups for various regions of the Isles ... Similar dates were proposed for the other mitochondrial haplogroups, implying that mitochondrial lines in Ireland are far older there than the arrival of Iron Age Celts ...
Cytoplasmic Transfer - Risks
... Though cytoplasmic transfer does not involve the transfer of nuclear DNA, there may still be a small amount of mitochondrial DNA present from the donor ... Because of the chance for mitochondrial DNA transfer, the embryo may also be exposed to numerous diseases connected with mitochondrial DNA such as diabetes, Lou Gehrig's disease, and pervasive developmental disorders ... There is much concern associated with the potential transfer of mitochondrial DNA and its unknown interaction with the foreign DNA of the recipient ...
Mitochondrial DNA - History
... Mitochondrial DNA was discovered in the 1960s by Margit M ... by biochemical assays on highly purified mitochondrial fractions ...

Famous quotes containing the word dna:

    Here [in London, history] ... seemed the very fabric of things, as if the city were a single growth of stone and brick, uncounted strata of message and meaning, age upon age, generated over the centuries to the dictates of some now all-but-unreadable DNA of commerce and empire.
    William Gibson (b. 1948)