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The Principality border with Zachlumia at the river of Neretva. It was split on three lesser principalities (Makarska, Rastočka/Rastok, Dalenska). The Pagans also controlled the islands of Mljet, Korčula, Brač, Hvar. The main cities in Pagania were: fortified Omiš, Vrulja, Makarska, Ostrog, Lavćen.
The pirate-like people of Pagania/Neretva (named after river Neretva) expressed their buccaneering capabilities by pirateering the Venetian-controlled Adriatic between 827 and 828, while the Venetian fleet was off-broad, in the Sicilian waters. As soon as the Fleet of the Venetian Republic returned, the Neretvians fell back. The Neretvians were also known as Pagans, because by the time of their Christianization, all Slavs already accepted Christianity. One of their leaders was baptised in Venice. As soon as the chances were good, the Neretvians would immediately embark on new raids. In 834 and 835, they have caught and killed several Venetian traders returning from Benevent. To punish the Neretvians, the Venetian Doge had launched a military expedition against them in 839. The war went on together with the Dalmatian Croats, but a truce was signed very soon, although, only with the Dalmatian Croats and some of the Pagan tribes. In 840, the Venetians had launched an expedition against the Neretvian Prince Ljudislav, but utterly failed. In 846, a new operation is launched that raided the Slavic land of Pagania, destroying one of her most important cities - Kaorle, although this did not end the Neretvian resistance, as they continued to bravely oppose the Venetian conquers.
Neretvia was subjected to Serbian rulers like Petar Gojniković throughout the 9th century. Neretvians then aligned themselves with King Tomislav of Croatia in the first half of the 10th century. After King Trpimir II's death, Pagania was incorporated into the Serbian Principality ruled by Časlav of the Vlastimirović dynasty. The Serbian period marked Neretvia's Golden Age. In 945 King Krešimir of Croatia died, and Civil War erupted. The Neretvians used Prince Časlav's annexations of Croatian territories and took Kaza, Vis and Lastovo; also managing to defend their own islands of Mljet, Korčula, Brač and Hvar. In 948, Venetian Doge Pietro III Candiano of Crete dispatched 33 galleys against the Neretvians, but the military attempt ended so drastically, that since that moment Venetia had to pay taxes regularly to the Neretvian Princes and their supreme rulers.
The Venetian Doge Peter II Orseolo finally defeated them in 998 and self-proclaimed himself the Duke of the Dalmatians (Dux Dalmatianorum), though without prejudice to Byzantine suzerainty. In 1050, the Neretvians agreed to join the Kingdom of Croatia under King Stjepan I. The arisal of Duklja, and its reconstruction of the Serbian realm to the east would bring the occupation of Pagania, and eventual incorporation as a part of Zahumlje.
Read more about this topic: Medieval Dalmatian Principalities
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