Fictitious Forces in A Local Coordinate SystemSee also: Generalized forces, Curvilinear coordinates, Generalized coordinates, and Frenet-Serret formulas
In discussion of a particle moving in a circular orbit, in an inertial frame of reference one can identify the centripetal and tangential forces. It then seems to be no problem to switch hats, change perspective, and talk about the fictitious forces commonly called the centrifugal and Euler force. But what underlies this switch in vocabulary is a change of observational frame of reference from the inertial frame where we started, where centripetal and tangential forces make sense, to a rotating frame of reference where the particle appears motionless and fictitious centrifugal and Euler forces have to be brought into play. That switch is unconscious, but real.
Suppose we sit on a particle in general planar motion (not just a circular orbit). What analysis underlies a switch of hats to introduce fictitious centrifugal and Euler forces?
To explore that question, begin in an inertial frame of reference. By using a coordinate system commonly used in planar motion, the so-called local coordinate system, as shown in Figure 1, it becomes easy to identify formulas for the centripetal inward force normal to the trajectory (in direction opposite to un in Figure 1), and the tangential force parallel to the trajectory (in direction ut), as shown next.
To introduce the unit vectors of the local coordinate system shown in Figure 1, one approach is to begin in Cartesian coordinates in an inertial framework and describe the local coordinates in terms of these Cartesian coordinates. In Figure 1, the arc length s is the distance the particle has traveled along its path in time t. The path r (t) with components x(t), y(t) in Cartesian coordinates is described using arc length s(t) as:
One way to look at the use of s is to think of the path of the particle as sitting in space, like the trail left by a skywriter, independent of time. Any position on this path is described by stating its distance s from some starting point on the path. Then an incremental displacement along the path ds is described by:
where primes are introduced to denote derivatives with respect to s. The magnitude of this displacement is ds, showing that:
- (Eq. 1)
This displacement is necessarily tangent to the curve at s, showing that the unit vector tangent to the curve is:
while the outward unit vector normal to the curve is
Orthogonality can be verified by showing the vector dot product is zero. The unit magnitude of these vectors is a consequence of Eq. 1.
As an aside, notice that the use of unit vectors that are not aligned along the Cartesian xy-axes does not mean we are no longer in an inertial frame. All it means is that we are using unit vectors that vary with s to describe the path, but still observe the motion from the inertial frame.
Using the tangent vector, the angle of the tangent to the curve, say θ, is given by:
The radius of curvature is introduced completely formally (without need for geometric interpretation) as:
The derivative of θ can be found from that for sin θ:
in which the denominator is unity according to Eq. 1. With this formula for the derivative of the sine, the radius of curvature becomes:
where the equivalence of the forms stems from differentiation of Eq. 1:
Having set up the description of any position on the path in terms of its associated value for s, and having found the properties of the path in terms of this description, motion of the particle is introduced by stating the particle position at any time t as the corresponding value s (t).
Using the above results for the path properties in terms of s, the acceleration in the inertial reference frame as described in terms of the components normal and tangential to the path of the particle can be found in terms of the function s(t) and its various time derivatives (as before, primes indicate differentiation with respect to s):
as can be verified by taking the dot product with the unit vectors ut(s) and un(s). This result for acceleration is the same as that for circular motion based on the radius ρ. Using this coordinate system in the inertial frame, it is easy to identify the force normal to the trajectory as the centripetal force and that parallel to the trajectory as the tangential force.
Next, we change observational frames. Sitting on the particle, we adopt a non-inertial frame where the particle is at rest (zero velocity). This frame has a continuously changing origin, which at time t is the center of curvature (the center of the osculating circle in Figure 1) of the path at time t, and whose rate of rotation is the angular rate of motion of the particle about that origin at time t. This non-inertial frame also employs unit vectors normal to the trajectory and parallel to it.
The angular velocity of this frame is the angular velocity of the particle about the center of curvature at time t. The centripetal force of the inertial frame is interpreted in the non-inertial frame where the body is at rest as a force necessary to overcome the centrifugal force. Likewise, the force causing any acceleration of speed along the path seen in the inertial frame becomes the force necessary to overcome the Euler force in the non-inertial frame where the particle is at rest. There is zero Coriolis force in the frame, because the particle has zero velocity in this frame. For a pilot in an airplane, for example, these fictitious forces are a matter of direct experience. However, these fictitious forces cannot be related to a simple observational frame of reference other than the particle itself, unless it is in a particularly simple path, like a circle.
That said, from a qualitative standpoint, the path of an airplane can be approximated by an arc of a circle for a limited time, and for the limited time a particular radius of curvature applies, the centrifugal and Euler forces can be analyzed on the basis of circular motion with that radius. See article discussing turning an airplane.
Next, reference frames rotating about a fixed axis are discussed in more detail.
Read more about this topic: Mechanics Of Planar Particle Motion
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