Marszałek - History


The term marszałek, derived from Old German marh-skalk or horse-servant came to Polish language in 13th century from Bohemia. Initially it retained its original meaning and was used to denote the stable-keeper on various courts of princes, most notably in Silesia. However, soon the term evolved and started denoting one of the functions at the court. In 14th century the royal court in Kraków introduced an office of the Marshal of the Polish Kingdom (marszałek Królestwa Polskiego), which was one of the offices reserved for kings' advisors.

In 15th century a similar office of Grand Marshal of the Crown (marszałek wielki koronny) was created for the closest of all kings' men. The Grand Marshal was often referred to as the first of the servants or first of the advisors (pierwszy minister in 16th century Polish) as he was superior to all other officials at the court, including the cup-bearers, sword-bearers, flag-bearers, writers, mathematicians and secretaries. Among his responsibilities were command over the court during kigs' travels, obedience of court etiquette and starting and closing the Senate meetings. In addition, when away from the Royal Castle, King entitled the marszałek to enforce the so-called marshal articles, or a set of rules limiting the freedom of the szlachta in the presence of the monarch and regulating the order of meetings in order to ensure kings' safety. Initially traditional law, the set of rules was finally accepted by the Sejm in 1678.

The Grand marshal's deputy was named marszałek nadworny (marshal of the court), who was taking care for the court and the safety of the dames. After the Union of Lublin similar offices were created for Lithuania and were entitled to conduct the same set of duties when the king was on the Lithuanian soil. In addition, a separate office of land marshal of Lithuania (marszałek ziemski litewski) was created. Finally, in 17th century an office of marszałek dworski (court marshal, not to be confused with marshal of the court) was created. The latter official was the manager of kings' private property.

In addition to the court officials, the term marszałek was also used to denote a number of lower-ranking or temporary officials. Out of those the most prominent were marshals of the Sejm (Polish parliament) (marszałek sejmu) and Sejmiks (regional parliaments).

In 1772, after the first partition of Poland, in the Russian-occupied part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth an office of the marszałek szlachty (Marshal of Nobility) was created. Not related to the earlier court officials, the szlachta marshal was a deputy of Russian-nominated governor and was entitled with taking care of the sejmiks and other self-government bodies of the gentry, as well as with collecting taxes and controlling the genealogical records. The Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire of 1842 introduced two sets of such officials: one for gubernyal level of administration and the other for powiat-level. Initially elected by the gentry, after the January Uprising of 1863 the marshals were usually nominated by the governor. Their influence soon diminished and the office was abolished, together with the traditional Polish system of administrative division onto voivodships, lands and powiats.

In 20th century, when Poland regained independence, a new rank was created: marszałek polski (Marshal of Poland). It was first given to Józef Piłsudski, and although it is the highest military rank it is more of an honor-rank. This title is granted only to military commanders who achieved victory during a war. Marszałek sejmu was recreated as well.

Read more about this topic:  Marszałek

Other articles related to "history":

Voltaire - Works - Historical
... History of Charles XII, King of Sweden (1731) The Age of Louis XIV (1751) The Age of Louis XV (1746–1752) Annals of the Empire – Charlemagne, A.D ... II (1754) Essay on the Manners of Nations (or 'Universal History') (1756) History of the Russian Empire Under Peter the Great (Vol ... II 1763) History of the Parliament of Paris (1769) ...
Spain - History - Fall of Muslim Rule and Unification
... The breakup of Al-Andalus into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative ... The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms ...
History of Computing
... The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without ...
Xia Dynasty - Modern Skepticism
... The Skeptical School of early Chinese history, started by Gu Jiegang in the 1920s, was the first group of scholars within China to seriously question the traditional story of its early history "the later ... early Chinese history is a tale told and retold for generations, during which new elements were added to the front end" ...
Casino - History of Gambling Houses
... gambling in some form or another has been seen in almost every society in history ... to Napoleon's France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games of chance ... In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons ...

Famous quotes containing the word history:

    English history is all about men liking their fathers, and American history is all about men hating their fathers and trying to burn down everything they ever did.
    Malcolm Bradbury (b. 1932)

    The greatest honor history can bestow is that of peacemaker.
    Richard M. Nixon (1913–1995)

    Racism is an ism to which everyone in the world today is exposed; for or against, we must take sides. And the history of the future will differ according to the decision which we make.
    Ruth Benedict (1887–1948)