The coast of Georgia is usually the northernmost range of the West Indian manatees because their low metabolic rate does not protect them in cold water. Prolonged exposure to water temperatures below 68 °F (20 °C) can bring about "cold stress syndrome" and death.
Florida manatees can move freely between salinity extremes.
Manatees have been spotted as far north as Cape Cod, and as recently as the late summer of 2006, one was seen in New York City and Rhode Island's Narragansett Bay, as cited in The Boston Globe. According to Memphis, Tennessee's The Commercial Appeal newspaper, one manatee was spotted in the Wolf River harbor near the Mississippi River in downtown Memphis, Tennessee, on October 23, 2006, though it was later found dead ten miles downriver in McKellar Lake.
The West Indian manatee migrates into Florida rivers, such as the Crystal, the Homosassa, and the Chassahowitzka Rivers. The headsprings of these rivers maintain a 22°C (72°F) temperature year round. During November to March, approximately 400 West Indian manatees (according to the National Wildlife Refuge) congregate in the rivers in Citrus County, Florida.
During the winter months, manatees often congregate near the warm water outflows of power plants along the coast of Florida instead of migrating south as they once did, causing some conservations to worry they have become too reliant on these artificially-warmed areas. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is trying to find a new way to heat the water for manatees that are dependent on plants that have closed. The main water treatment plant in Guyana has four manatees that keep storage canals clear of weeds; there are also some in the ponds of the National Park in Georgetown, Guyana.
Studies suggest Florida manatees must have some access to fresh water for proper osmoregulation.
Accurate population estimates of the Florida manatee (T. manatus) are notoriously difficult and have been called scientifically weak; with widely varying counts from year to year, some areas show increases and others decreases, with very little strong evidence of increases except in two areas. Manatee counts are highly variable without an accurate way to estimate numbers:in Florida in 1996, a winter survey found 2,639 manatees; in 1997, a January survey found 2,229; and a February survey found 1,706. A statewide synoptic survey in January 2010 found 5,067 manatees living in Florida, which is a new record count.
Population viability studies carried out in 1997 found that decreasing adult survival and eventual extinction is a probable future outcome for Florida manatees, without additional protection.
Fossil remains of Florida manatee ancestors date back about 45 million years.
Other articles related to "west indian, west":
... The first major wave of West Indian immigrants, including Barbadians, to the United States took place between 1901 and 1920, with a total of 230,972 ... Between 1931 and 1950 West Indian immigration to the United States declined, due partly to an immigration restriction law that imposed a quota system heavily weighted in favor of newcomers ... Depression was another factor in the drop in West Indian immigration, which reached a significant low in the 1930s ...
1942 at Tunapuna, Trinidad) was a coloured West Indian cricketer who toured England in 1900 and 1906 and was a regular member of the Trinidad team from 1893-94 to 1922-23 ... was also a useful cricketer and his brother-in-law Victor Pascall also toured with the West Indies in 1923 ... He was a member of both the 1900 and 1906 West Indies touring sides ...
... the Child A study of the novels of three West Indian writers Jamaica Kincaid, Merle Hodge, and George Lamming" ... "Woman and Womanchild Bonding and Selfhood in Three West Indian Novels", in SAGE A Scholarly Journal on Black Women, 21 (Spring 1985), 24-27 ... "Three West Indian Heroines An Analysis", in CLA Journal, 21 (December 1977), 238-50 ...
... of profits back into the slave trade, the total profits from the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to less than 5% of the British economy during any year of the Industrial Revolution ... influence of wealth generated from the West Indian plantations upon the financing of the Industrial Revolution, stating that whatever substantial flow of investment ...
... Charles Stuart Morrison (27 May 1883 in Jamaica – 25 November 1948 in Kingston, Jamaica) was a West Indian cricketer who toured with the second West Indian touring side to England in 1906 ... against Lord Brackley's team in 1904-05 and was even chosen for the combined West Indies team for the match in Trinidad ... some success in a couple of early minor matches taking 8-101 in the match against Lord Brackley's West Indian XI and 5 more wickets in the next match against the Minor Counties XI ...
Famous quotes containing the words indian and/or west:
“There is no difference between the client and the prostitute. If a man goes to a prostitute, he is also a prostitute.”
—Sister Michele, Indian nun. As quoted in the New York Times Magazine, p. 35 (January 16, 1994)
“But beauty vanishes; beauty passes;
However rarerare it be;
And when I crumble, who will remember
This lady of the West Country?”
—Walter De La Mare (18731956)