Liquid Junction Potential

Liquid junction potential occurs when two solutions of different concentrations are in contact with each other. The more concentrated solution will have a tendency to diffuse into the comparatively less concentrated one. The rate of diffusion of each ion will be roughly proportional to its speed in an electric field. If the anions diffuse more rapidly than the cations, they will diffuse ahead into the dilute solution, leaving the latter negatively charged and the concentrated solution positively charged. This will result in an electrical double layer of positive and negative charges at the junction of the two solutions. Thus at the point of junction, a potential difference will develop because of the ionic transfer. This potential is called liquid junction potential or diffusion potential. The magnitude of the potential depends on the relative speeds of the ions' movement.

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