The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁 or 조선전쟁, Hanja: 韓國戰爭 or 朝鮮戰爭; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between the Republic of Korea and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. It was primarily the result of the political division of Korea by an agreement of the victorious Allies at the conclusion of the Pacific War at the end of World War II. The Korean Peninsula was ruled by the Empire of Japan from 1910 until the end of World War II. Following the surrender of the Empire of Japan in September 1945, American administrators divided the peninsula along the 38th parallel, with U.S. military forces occupying the southern half and Soviet military forces occupying the northern half.
The failure to hold free elections throughout the Korean Peninsula in 1948 deepened the division between the two sides; the North established a communist government, while the South established a nominally democratic government. The 38th parallel increasingly became a political border between the two Korean states. Although reunification negotiations continued in the months preceding the war, tension intensified. Cross-border skirmishes and raids at the 38th Parallel persisted. The situation escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces invaded South Korea on 25 June 1950. It was the first significant armed conflict of the Cold War. In 1950 the Soviet Union boycotted the United Nations security council, in protest at representation of China by the Kuomintang / Republic of China government, which had taken refuge in Taiwan following defeat in the Chinese Civil War. In the absence of a dissenting voice from the Soviet Union, who could have vetoed it, the United States and other countries passed a security council resolution authorizing military intervention in Korea.
The United States of America provided 88% of the 341,000 international soldiers which aided South Korean forces in repelling the invasion, with twenty other countries of the United Nations offering assistance. Suffering severe casualties, within two months the defenders were pushed back to a small area in the south of the Korean Peninsula, known as the Pusan perimeter. A rapid U.N. counter-offensive then drove the North Koreans past the 38th Parallel and almost to the Yalu River, when the People's Republic of China (PRC) entered the war on the side of North Korea. Chinese intervention forced the Southern-allied forces to retreat behind the 38th Parallel. While not directly committing forces to the conflict, the Soviet Union provided material aid to both the North Korean and Chinese armies. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when the armistice agreement was signed. The agreement restored the border between the Koreas near the 38th Parallel and created the Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ), a 2.5-mile (4.0 km)-wide fortified buffer zone between the two Korean nations. Minor incidents continue to the present day.
With both North Korea and South Korea sponsored by external powers, the Korean War was a proxy war. From a military science perspective, it combined strategies and tactics of World War I and World War II: it began with a mobile campaign of swift infantry attacks followed by air bombing raids, but became a static trench war by July 1951.
Other articles related to "korean war, war":
... During the three years of the war 133 Medals of Honor were presented and although more than 150, 000 Jewish American men and women were serving in Korea at that time, not one ... to Rubin in a ceremony at the White House, for his actions in 1950 during the Korean War ...
... Mao Zedong's decision to involve China in the Korean War was a conscientious effort to confront the most powerful country in the world, undertaken at a time ... a positive opinion of him after China's entrance into the Korean War ... Inside China, the war improved the long-term prestige of Mao, Zhou, and Peng ...
... With the end of the war in September 1945, Clark became an immediate dumping ground for aircraft of all types from inactivating fighter and bomber units ... As a result of the Korean War, the 18th was reassigned from Clark to Pusan AB, South Korea on 1 December 1950 ... During the Korean War, the 6204th Photo Mapping Squadron was deployed for three months in 1950 performing aerial mapping of both North and South Korea before being replaced ...
... The third influence on Digger slang were Australia's involvement in the Korean War and its involvement in the Vietnam War ... As with the Second World War, much of the slang was carried over, and some of it evolved ... In the Second World War, a subaltern was "baggie-arsed", but was simply a "baggie" by the time of the Korean War ...
... During the Korean War Puerto Ricans distinguished themselves as part of the 65th Infantry Regiment receiving many awards and recognitions, including ten Distinguished ... conflict in which the United States has been involved, among which are the Vietnam War in which four Puerto Ricans were awarded the Medal of Honor, Operation El Dorado Canyon, Operation Desert Shield ... In World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War Puerto Ricans were the most decorated Hispanic soldiers and in some cases, such as Operation Restore Hope and ...
Famous quotes containing the word war:
“No more shall the war cry sever,
Or the winding rivers be red:
They banish our anger forever
When they laurel the graves of our dead!
Under the sod and the dew,
Waiting the Judgment Day:
Love and tears for the Blue;
Tears and love for the Gray.”
—Francis Miles Finch (18271907)