Pike is best known for his distinction between the emic and the etic. "Emic" (as in "phonemics") refers to the subjective understanding and account of meaning in the sounds of languages, while "etic" (as in phonetics") refers to the objective study of those sounds. Pike argued that only native speakers are competent judges of emic descriptions, and are thus crucial in providing data for linguistic research, while investigators from outside the linguistic group apply scientific methods in the analysis of language, producing etic descriptions which are verifiable and reproducible. Pike himself carried out studies of indigenous languages in Australia, Bolivia, Ecuador, Ghana, Java, Mexico, Nepal, New Guinea, Nigeria, the Philippines, and Peru.
Pike developed his theory of tagmemics to help with the analysis of languages from Central and South America, by identifying (using both semantic and syntactic elements) strings of linguistic elements capable of playing a number of different roles.
Pike's approach to the study of language put him outside the circle of the "generative" movement begun by Noam Chomsky, a dominant linguist, since Pike believed that the structure of language should be studied in context, not just single sentences, as seen in the title of his magnum opus "Language in relation to a unified theory of the structure of human behavior" (1967).
He became well known for his "monolingual demonstrations". He would stand before an audience, with a large number of chalkboards. A speaker of a language unknown to him would be brought in to work with Pike. Using gestures and objects, not asking questions in a language that the person might know, Pike would begin to analyze the language before the audience.
Pike also developed the constructed language Kalaba-X for use in teaching the theory and practice of translation.
When asked whether he was a missionary or a linguist, he replied "I am a mule." He explained that a mule is part horse, part donkey, combining traits of each. He pointed out that sometimes he did more of the work of a horse, other times he did more of the work of a donkey, but he was always both (Headland 2001:508).
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Other articles related to "work, works":
... at Joachimsthal, a centre of mining and smelting works, his object being partly "to fill in the gaps in the art of healing", and partly to test what had been written about mineralogy by careful observation of ... to scientific order the knowledge won by practical work, brought Agricola into notice it contained an approving letter from Erasmus at the beginning of the book ... and historical subjects, his chief historical work being the Dominatores Saxonici a prima origine ad hanc aetatem, published at Freiberg ...
... Weorc or Work (Anglo-Saxon leader), who gave his name to Workington or 'Weorc-inga-tun', meaning the 'tun' (settlement) of the 'Weorcingas' (the people of Weorc or Work) ...
... Early work on the study of the chemistry of rutherfordium focused on gas thermochromatography and measurement of relative deposition temperature adsorption curves ... The initial work was carried out at Dubna in an attempt to reaffirm their discovery of the element ... Recent work is more reliable regarding the identification of the parent rutherfordium radioisotopes ...
... His most famous work, the De re metallica libri xii long remained a standard work, and marks its author as one of the most accomplished chemists of his ... The work is a complete and systematic treatise on mining and extractive metallurgy, illustrated with many fine and interesting woodcuts which illustrate every conceivable process to ... Until that time, Pliny's work Historia Naturalis was the main source of information on metals and mining techniques, and Agricola made numerous references to the Roman encyclopedia ...
... His work led to the discovery of the first evidence for the use by Palaeolithic man in the Caves of the Mendip Hills ... Balch continued the work from 1904 to 1914, where he led excavations of the entrance passage (1904–15), Witch's Kitchen (Chamber 1) and Hell's Ladder (1926–1927) and the Badger Hole (1938–1 ... The 1911 work found a 4 to 7 feet (1.2–2.1 m) of stratification, mostly dating from the Iron age and sealed into place by Romano-British artefacts ...
Famous quotes containing the word work:
“The truth is, there is money buried everywhere, and you have only to go to work to find it.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)
“We work in the darkwe do what we canwe give what we have. Our doubt is our passion and our passion is our task. The rest is the madness of art.”
—Henry James (18431916)
“Children, then, acquire social skills not so much from adults as from their interactions with one another. They are likely to discover through trial and error which strategies work and which do not, and later to reflect consciously on what they have learned.”
—Zick Rubin (20th century)