Judiciary

The judiciary (also known as the judicial system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state. The judiciary also provides a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the judiciary generally does not make law (that is, in a plenary fashion, which is the responsibility of the legislature) or enforce law (which is the responsibility of the executive), but rather interprets law and applies it to the facts of each case. This branch of the state is often tasked with ensuring equal justice under law. It usually consists of a court of final appeal (called the "Supreme court" or "Constitutional court"), together with lower courts.

In many jurisdictions the judicial branch has the power to change laws through the process of judicial review. Courts with judicial review power may annul the laws and rules of the state when it finds them incompatible with a higher norm, such as primary legislation, the provisions of the constitution or international law. Judges constitute a critical force for interpretation and implementation of a constitution, thus de facto in common law countries creating the body of constitutional law.

During last decades the judiciary became active in economic issues related with economic rights established by constitution because "economics may provide insight into questions that bear on the proper legal interpretation". Since many a country with a transitional political and economic system continues treating its constitution as an abstract legal document disengaged from the economic policy of the state, practice of judicial review of economic acts of executive and legislative branches began to grow.

In the 1980s, the Supreme Court of India for almost a decade had been encouraging public interest litigation on behalf of the poor and oppressed by using a very broad interpretation of several articles of the Indian Constitution.

Budget of the judiciary in many transitional and developing countries is almost completely controlled by the executive. The latter undermines the separation of powers, as it creates a critical financial dependence of the judiciary. The proper national wealth distribution including the government spending on the judiciary is subject of the constitutional economics. It is important to distinguish between the two methods of corruption of the judiciary: the state (through budget planning and various privileges), and the private.

The term "judiciary" is also used to refer collectively to the personnel, such as judges, magistrates and other adjudicators, who form the core of a judiciary (sometimes referred to as a "bench"), as well as the staffs who keep the system running smoothly.

Read more about Judiciary:  History, Various Functions

Other articles related to "judiciary":

Sadeq Larijani - Career - Activities
... On 7 September 2009, Iranian police with permission from judiciary system and Tehran General Court entered the office for support of political prisoners and seized all the documents, computers ... On 8 September 2009, Iranian Judiciary, unexpectedly closed and sealed the office of National Confidence Party and arrested Morteza Alviri and Alireza Beheshti and several of the closest allies of ... That same month, the authorities from the Judiciary System began targeting the children of leaders of the opposition groups ...
Sam Garrison - National Politics, and Watergate
... In 1971, he moved to Washington to be staff counsel to the House Judiciary Committee, and just 16 months later, he joined the staff of newly elected Vice President Spiro Agnew as legislative liaison ... in 1973, Garrison began working on the House Judiciary Committee's impeachment staff, and eventually replaced the committee's chief minority counsel, Albert E ... someone, for appearance's sake if nothing else, to argue the soft spots in the Judiciary Committee's evidence." "The question," Mr ...
Bernard Siegan - Nomination To The Ninth Circuit
... Senate Judiciary Committee in addressing any judicial nomination in U.S ... Siegan had confirmation hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee on November 5, 1987 and again on February 25, 1988, but his senatorial opponents were not satisfied by ... Siegan refused to withdraw, preferring instead to proceed with a vote from the Senate Judiciary Committee ...
CIA Transnational Human Rights Actions - Police Training - ICITAP
... for police, prosecutors, and the judiciary and advice on American laws and programs to combat crime within a democratic framework." The judiciary in ... aspect must be addressed, however, as a functioning police force cannot exist without a judiciary to serve ...
Judiciary - Various Functions
... Judiciary Electoral branch Other topics Sovereignty Theories of political behavior Biology and political orientation Political Organisations Subseries Elections Electoral systems ...

Famous quotes containing the word judiciary:

    The judiciary has fallen to a very low state in this country. I think your part of the country has suffered especially. The federal judges of the South are a disgrace to any country, and I’ll be damned if I put any man on the bench of whose character and ability there is the least doubt.
    William Howard Taft (1857–1930)