The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems, general courts (allmänna domstolar) for criminal and civil cases, and general administrative courts (allmänna förvaltningsdomstolar) for administrative cases. Each of these systems has three tiers, where the top tier court of the respective system typically only will hear cases that may become precedent. The role of judicial review of legislation is not practiced by the courts; instead, the Council on Legislation gives non-binding opinions on legality.
- The Supreme Court of Sweden (Högsta Domstolen)
- 6 courts of appeals (hovrätter)
- 53 district courts (tingsrätter)
General administrative courts:
- The Supreme Administrative Court of Sweden (Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen)
- 4 administrative courts of appeals (kammarrätter)
- 12 administrative courts (förvaltningsrätter)
There are also a number of special courts, which will hear a narrower set of cases, as set down by legislation. While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts. The special courts usually have a one-tier or two-tier system.
- Land and environmental courts (mark- och miljödomstolar): five first-tier courts (in five district courts) and one second-tier court (in one court of appeals, Svea hovrätt)
- Migration courts (migrationsdomstolar): three first-tier courts (in three county administrative courts) and one second-tier court (in one administrative court of appeals, in Stockholm)
- The Labour Court (Arbetsdomstolen)
- The Market Court (Marknadsdomstolen)
- The Court of Patent Appeals (Patentbesvärsrätten)
- The Defense Intelligence Court (Försvarsunderrättelsedomstolen)
A number of tribunals (nämnder) are also very similar to special courts in the way they operate:
- Regional rent tribunals (hyresnämnder), of which there are eight, within district courts.
- Regional tenancy tribunals (arrendenämnder), of which there are eight, in the same locations as regional rent tribunals.
Other examples of tribunals (nämnder):
- The tribunal for traffic injuries (Trafikskadenämnden) in Stockholm. If the parties don't want to accept its recommendation, the case is appealed in the district court (tingsrätt). Other insurance matters have their own tribunals: Ansvarsförsäkringens Personskadenämnd, Ombudskostnadsnämnden, Personförsäkringsnämnden and Nämnden för rättsskyddsfrågor.
- The National Board for Consumer Disputes (Allmänna Reklamationsnämnden) pronounces recommendation verdicts, but without imposing anything, yet are these normally respected.
The district coursts (tingsrätt) are the instances to appeal against certain resolutions by authorities like Bolagsverket, Överförmyndare, Kronofogdemyndigheten, Lantmäteriet and the police (Polisen). Likewise an administrative court (förvaltningsrätt) can overthrow a taxation made by the tax authorities (Skatteverket).
Read more about this topic: Judicial System Of Sweden
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—Sojourner Truth (17971883)
“Behold, O God our shield, and look upon the face of thine anointed.
For a day in thy courts is better than a thousand. I had rather be a doorkeeper in the house of my God, than to dwell in the tents of wickedness.
For the Lord God is a sun and shield: the Lord will give grace and glory:”
—Bible: Hebrew Psalm LXXXIV (l. LXXXIV, 911)