Jizya

Under Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزية‎ ǧizyah ; Ottoman Turkish: cizye; both derived from Pahlavi and possibly from Aramaic gaziyat) is a per capita tax levied on a section of an Islamic state's non-Muslim citizens, who meet certain criteria. The tax is and was to be levied on able-bodied adult males of military age and affording power (but with specific exemptions). From the point of view of the Muslim rulers, jizya was a material proof of the non-Muslims' acceptance of subjection to the state and its laws, "just as for the inhabitants it was a concrete continuation of the taxes paid to earlier regimes." In return, non-Muslim citizens were permitted to practice their faith, to enjoy a measure of communal autonomy, to be entitled to the Muslim state's protection from outside aggression, and to be exempted from military service and the zakat taxes obligatory upon Muslim citizens.

The word jizya is derived from the root word that refers to “part”, hence taken from a part of the wealth of the non-Muslim citizens. In fact, the use of the word jizya was not even necessary. Al-Tabari wrote that some members of the Christian community asked the companion “Umar bin al-Khatab if they could refer to the jizya as sadaqah which literally means “charity”, which he approved of.

Read more about Jizya:  Etymology and Meaning, Rationale, Application, History, Comparison Between Zakat and Jizya, Criticism

Other articles related to "jizya":

Emirate Of Sicily - Sicily Under The Muslim Rule
... The dhimmi were also required to pay the jizya, or poll tax, and the kharaj or land tax, but were exempt from the tax that Muslims had to pay (Zakaat) ... Under Arab rule there were different categories of Jizya payers, but their common denominator was the payment of the Jizya as a mark of subjection to Muslim rule in exchange for protection ... This was largely a result of the Jizya system which allowed co-existence ...
Muslim Conquest Of Persia - Persia Under Muslim Rule - Administration
... state and known as dhimmi (meaning protected), and were to pay a special tax, the jizya (tribute), which was calculated per individual at varying rates ... Women and Children were exempted from the Jizya ... ” Practically the Jizya replaced poll taxes imposed by the Sassanids, which tended to be much higher than the Jizya ...
Islamic Fanaticism - Islamic Sources - Jihad - Scholars' Comment in Favor of Jihad
... And the Ulama have mentioned that this type of jihad is for maintaining the payment of Jizya ... The real purpose in levying jizya on them is to humiliate them to such an extent that, on account of fear of jizya, they may not be able to dress well and to live in grandeur ...
Dhimmi - Restrictions - Jizya Tax
... Payment of the jizya obligated Muslim authorities to protect dhimmis in civil and military matters ... Sura 929 stipulates that jizya be exacted from non-Muslims as a condition required for jihad to cease ... Failure to pay the jizya could result in the pledge of protection of a dhimmi's life and property becoming void, with the dhimmi facing the alternatives of conversion, enslavement ...
Jizya - Criticism
... Critics often cite Jizya as a form of oppression in Islamic law ... The sum of the jizya and kharaj taxes levied on non-Muslims were considerably larger than the zakat tax on Muslims and conversion generally brought tax relief ... Some evidence suggests that the Jizya was sometimes double the Zakat for example, the Hedaya, an Islamic legal text, declared it lawful to require twice as much of a Zimmee as of a Mussulman ...