Islamic Studies By Author (non-Muslim Or Academic)
Included are prominent authors who have made studies concerning Islam, the religion and its civilization, and the culture of muslim peoples. Not included are those studies of Islam produced by Muslim authors meant primarily for a Muslim audience.
Herein most of the authors from the early centuries of Islam belonged to non-Muslim societies, cultures, or religions. The primary intent of many early works was to inform non-Muslims about a distant and/or unfamiliar Islam; some were clearly polemical in motivation and cannot be termed objective. As time went on, academic standards were developed generally, and were increasingly applied to studies of Islam. Many of the authors here are of Christian provenance, yet there are also Jewish, Zoroastrian, Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Taoist, Confucian, Communist, and secular points of view. The most recent entries are often sourced in universities, and include works by Muslim professors whose publications address a worldwide audience.
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