Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War, also known as the First Persian Gulf War, was an armed conflict between Iran and Ba'athist Iraq lasting from September 1980 to August 1988, making it the longest conventional war of the 20th century after the Sino–Japanese War. It was initially referred to in English as the "Persian Gulf War" prior to the Persian Gulf War of the early 1990s.

The Iran–Iraq War began when Iraq invaded Iran via simultaneous invasions by air and land on 22 September 1980. It followed a long history of border disputes, and was motivated both by fears that the Iranian Revolution in 1979 would inspire insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia majority as well as Iraq's desire to replace Iran as the dominant Persian Gulf state. Although Iraq hoped to take advantage of the revolutionary chaos in Iran and attacked without formal warning, they made only limited progress into Iran and were quickly repelled; Iran regained virtually all lost territory by June 1982. For the next six years, Iran was on the offensive.

Despite calls for a ceasefire by the United Nations Security Council, hostilities continued until 20 August 1988. The war finally ended with United Nations Security Council Resolution 598, a ceasefire brokered by the United Nations which was accepted by both sides. At the conclusion of the war, it took several weeks for the Iranian Armed Forces to evacuate Iraqi territory to honour pre-war international borders set by the 1975 Algiers Agreement. The last prisoners of war were exchanged in 2003.

The war cost both sides in lives and economic damage: half a million Iraqi and Iranian soldiers, as well as civilians, are believed to have died in the war, with many more injured; however, it brought neither reparations nor changes in borders. The conflict has been compared to World War I in terms of the tactics used, including large-scale trench warfare with barbed wire stretched across trenches, manned machine-gun posts, bayonet charges, human wave attacks across a no-man's land, and extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas by the Iraqi government against Iranian troops, civilians, and Iraqi Kurds. At the time of the conflict, the UN Security Council issued statements that "chemical weapons had been used in the war." However, due to various outside pressures, the statements never clarified that only Iraq was using chemical weapons, and retrospective authors have claimed, "The international community remained silent as Iraq used weapons of mass destruction against Iranian as well as Iraqi Kurds."

Read more about Iran–Iraq War:  Terminology, Geographic Analysis, Aftermath, Comparison of Iraqi and Iranian Military Strength, Foreign Support To Iraq and Iran, Use of Chemical Weapons By Iraq, Dissimilarities From Other Conflicts, Arguments That Iran, Not Iraq, Was The Aggressor, Leaked Iraqi Intelligence Documents

Other articles related to "war, wars":

Sadam - Foreign Affairs - Iran–Iraq War
... In the first days of the war, there was heavy ground fighting around strategic ports as Iraq launched an attack on Khuzestan ... By 1982, Iraq was on the defensive and looking for ways to end the war ... found itself bogged down in one of the longest and most destructive wars of attrition of the 20th century ...
Iran–Saudi Arabia Relations - Iran–Iraq War
... conflict between the two countries also played a pivotal role in the Iran–Iraq war when Saudi authorities pledged US$25 billion of aid to the Iraqi government of Saddam Hussein, a Sunni ... The Iran–Iraq War increased Saudi concern about their security, leading to their financial support to Iraq, although the relations between Iraq and Saudi Arabia at that time ... To cover the costs of the war Saudi Arabia dramatically increased its oil production ...
Iran–Iraq War - Leaked Iraqi Intelligence Documents
... archive, released 20 transcripts and documents in conjunction with a conference on the Iran–Iraq war that was convened by the Woodrow Wilson International ...
Anti-Iranian Sentiments - In The Arab World - Modern Times - Iran–Iraq War
... no effort to conceal Arab Nationalism in his war against Iran (which he called "the second Battle of al-Qādisiyyah) ... On 2 April 1980, a half-year before the outbreak of the war, Saddam Hussein visited al-Mustansiriyyah University in Baghdad ... In the war, Iraq made extensive use of chemical weapons (such as mustard gas) against Iranian troops and civilians as well as Iraqi Kurds ...

Famous quotes containing the word war:

    Viewed as a drama, the war is somewhat disappointing.
    —D.W. (David Wark)