Improved Water Source

An improved drinking-water source is defined as one that, by nature of its construction or through active intervention, is likely to be protected from outside contamination, in particular from contamination with fecal matter.

To allow for international comparability of estimates for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the World Health Organization/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation defines "improved" drinking water sources as follows:

  • Piped water into dwelling
  • Piped water into yard/plot
  • Public tap /standpipes
  • Tubewell /boreholes
  • Protected dug wells
  • Protected springs
  • rainwater collection
  • Bottled water, if the secondary source used by the household for cooking and personal hygiene is improved

Water sources that are not considered as "improved" are:

  • Unprotected dug wells
  • Unprotected springs
  • Vendor provided water
  • Cart with small tank/drum
  • Bottled water, if the secondary source used by the household for cooking and personal hygiene is unimproved
  • Tanker-truck
  • Surface water

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Water Supply And Sanitation In Rwanda - Access - Level and Trend
... Figures on access to water and sanitation vary depending on the source of information, apparently in part because different definitions may have been used for access to an Improved water ... The fact that many rural water systems are not functioning properly makes it also difficult to estimate effective access to improved water supply ... The following table compares access to water supply according to various sources, highlighting the difficulty to obtain reliable data on the change in access to water supply ...
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... granular material (such as sand or silt), clay, and water ... When water in the sand cannot escape, it creates liquefied soil that loses strength and cannot support weight ... Quicksand can be formed in standing water or in upwards flowing water (as from an artesian spring) ...
Water Supply And Sanitation In Pakistan - Access
... In Pakistan, according to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of the World Health Organization and UNICEF, access in Pakistan to an improved water source increased from 85% in ... In the same time, improved sanitation coverage increased from 27% to 48% (see table 1) ... Table 1 Access to Water and Sanitation in Pakistan (2010) Urban (36% of the population) Rural (64% of the population) Total Water Broad definition 96% 89% 92% House connections 57% 15% 29% Sanitation Broad ...
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... At the turn of the 20th century, synchronized swimming was known as water ballet ... or Glasgow which were equipped with huge on-stage water tanks for the purpose ... with various diving actions and stunts in the water, Katherine Curtis started one of the first water ballet clubs at the University of Chicago, where the team began ...

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