Improved Water Source

An improved drinking-water source is defined as one that, by nature of its construction or through active intervention, is likely to be protected from outside contamination, in particular from contamination with fecal matter.

To allow for international comparability of estimates for monitoring the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the World Health Organization/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation defines "improved" drinking water sources as follows:

  • Piped water into dwelling
  • Piped water into yard/plot
  • Public tap /standpipes
  • Tubewell /boreholes
  • Protected dug wells
  • Protected springs
  • rainwater collection
  • Bottled water, if the secondary source used by the household for cooking and personal hygiene is improved

Water sources that are not considered as "improved" are:

  • Unprotected dug wells
  • Unprotected springs
  • Vendor provided water
  • Cart with small tank/drum
  • Bottled water, if the secondary source used by the household for cooking and personal hygiene is unimproved
  • Tanker-truck
  • Surface water

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... In Pakistan, according to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation of the World Health Organization and UNICEF, access in Pakistan to an improved ... In the same time, improved sanitation coverage increased from 27% to 48% (see table 1) ... Table 1 Access to Water and Sanitation in Pakistan (2010) Urban (36% of the population) Rural (64% of the population) Total Water Broad definition 96% 89% 92 ...
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... Figures on access to water and sanitation vary depending on the source of information, apparently in part because different definitions may have been used for access to an Improved ... The fact that many rural water systems are not functioning properly makes it also difficult to estimate effective access to improved water supply ... The following table compares access to water supply according to various sources, highlighting the difficulty to obtain reliable data on the change in access to ...
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