**Order of Draws**

The probability of drawing any sequence of white and black marbles (the hypergeometric distribution) depends only on the number of white and black marbles, not on the order in which they appear; i.e., it is an exchangeable distribution. As a result, the probability of drawing a white marble in the draw is

This can be shown by induction. First, it is certainly true for the first draw that:

- .

Also, we can show that by writing:

,

which makes it true for every draw.

A simpler proof than the one above is the following:

By symmetry each of the marbles has the same chance to be drawn in the draw. In addition, according to the sum rule, the chance of drawing a white marble in the draw can be calculated by summing the chances of each individual white marble being drawn in the . These two observations imply that if for example the number of white marbles at the outset is 3 times the number of black marbles, then also the chance of a white marble being drawn in the draw is 3 times as big as a black marble being drawn in the draw. In the general case we have white marbles and black marbles at the outset. So

- .

Since in the draw either a white or a black marble needs to be drawn, we also know that

- .

Combining these two equations immediately yields

- .

Read more about this topic: Hypergeometric Distribution

### Famous quotes containing the words draws and/or order:

“There is no event greater in life than the appearance of new persons about our hearth, except it be the progress of the character which *draws* them.”

—Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)

“Yet whatever gains I had, these I have come to regard as loss because of Christ. More than that, I regard everything as loss because of the surpassing value of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord. For his sake I have suffered the loss of all things, and I regard them as rubbish, in *order* that I may gain Christ and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own that comes from the law, but one that comes through faith in Christ, the righteousness from God based on faith.”

—Bible: New Testament, Philippians 3:7-9.