Horses in The Middle Ages

Horses in the Middle Ages differed in size, build and breed from the modern horse, and were, on average, smaller. They were also more central to society than their modern counterparts, being essential for war, agriculture, and transport.

Consequently, specific types of horse developed, many of which have no modern equivalent. While an understanding of modern horse breeds and equestrianism is vital for any analysis of the medieval horse, researchers also need to consider documentary (both written and pictorial) and archeological evidence.

Horses in the Middle Ages were rarely differentiated by breed, but rather by use. This led them to be described, for example, as "chargers" (war horses), "palfreys" (riding horses), cart horses or packhorses. Reference is also given to their place of origin, such as "Spanish horses," but whether this referred to one breed or several is unknown. Another difficulty arising during any study of medieval documents or literature is the flexibility of the medieval languages, where several words can be used for one thing (or, conversely, several objects are referred to by one word). Words such as 'courser' and 'charger' are used interchangeably (even within one document), and where one epic may speak disparagingly of a rouncey, another praises its skill and swiftness.

Significant technological advances in equestrian equipment, often introduced from other cultures, allowed for significant changes in both warfare and agriculture. In particular, improved designs for the solid-treed saddle as well as the arrival of the stirrup, horseshoe and horse collar were significant advances in medieval society.

Consequently, the assumptions and theories developed by historians are not definitive, and debate still rages on many issues, such as the breeding or size of the horse, and a number of sources must be consulted in order to understand the breadth of the subject.

Read more about Horses In The Middle AgesBreeding, Horses in Warfare, Transportation, Agriculture, Equestrian Equipment and Technological Innovations, Horse Trades and Professions, Women and Horses

Other articles related to "middle, age, horses in the middle ages, horse, horses":

Cunt - Etymology
... In Middle English, it appeared with many spellings, such as coynte, cunte and queynte, which did not always reflect the actual pronunciation of the word ... such as the Swedish, Faroese and Nynorsk kunta West Frisian and Middle Low German kunte Middle Dutch conte Dutch kut Middle Low German kutte Middle High German kotze ("prostitute") German kott ... The word in its modern meaning is attested in Middle English ...
Bree (Middle-earth)
... Tolkien's Middle-earth, east of the Shire and south of Fornost Erain ... in Eriador, long established by the time of the Third Age of Middle-earth ... of the Edain who did not reach Beleriand in the first age, remaining east of the mountains in Eriador ...
Horses In The Middle Ages - Women and Horses
... Under this system, some women trained in horse-related trades, and there are records of women working as farriers and saddle-makers ... developed from freight wagons, pulled by three or four horses ... Women of the nobility also rode horses for sport, accompanying men in activities that included hunting and hawking ...
Baritone
... written in the range from the second F below middle C to the F above middle C (i.e ... F2–F4) in choral music, and from the second G below middle C to the G above middle C (G2 to G4) in operatic music, but can be extended at either end ...
Disorders of The Middle Ear
... The middle ear is hollow ... water, there will be a pressure difference between the middle ear and the outside environment ... If middle ear pressure remains low, the ear drum may become retracted into the middle ear ...

Famous quotes containing the words middle ages, ages, horses and/or middle:

    Real socialism is inside man. It wasn’t born with Marx. It was in the communes of Italy in the Middle Ages. You can’t say it is finished.
    Dario Fo (b. 1926)

    So long as you write what you wish to write, that is all that matters; and whether it matters for ages or only for hours, nobody can say. But to sacrifice a hair of the head of your vision, a shade of its colour, in deference to some Headmaster with a silver pot in his hand or to some professor with a measuring-rod up his sleeve, is the most abject treachery, and the sacrifice or wealth and chastity, which used to be said to be the greatest of human disasters, a mere flea-bite in comparison.
    Virginia Woolf (1882–1941)

    The poet alone knows astronomy, chemistry, vegetation, and animation, for he does not stop at these facts, but employs them as signs. He knows why the plain, or meadow of space, was strewn with these flowers we call suns, and moons, and stars; why the great deep is adorned with animals, with men, and gods; for, in every word he speaks he rides on them as the horses of thought.
    Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803–1882)

    In our calling, we have to choose; we must make our fortune either in this world or in the next, there is no middle way.
    Stendhal [Marie Henri Beyle] (1783–1842)