Nikolaus August Otto as a young man was a traveling salesman for a grocery concern. In his travels he encountered the internal combustion engine built in Paris by Belgian expatriate Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir. In 1860, Lenoir successfully created a double-acting engine that ran on illuminating gas at 4% efficiency. The 18 litre Lenoir Engine produced only 2 horsepower. The Lenoir engine ran on illuminating gas made from coal, which had been developed in Paris by Philip Lebon.
In testing a replica of the Lenoir engine in 1861 Otto became aware of the effects of compression on the fuel charge. In 1862, Otto attempted to produce an engine to improve on the poor efficiency and reliability of the Lenoir engine. He tried to create an engine that would compress the fuel mixture prior to ignition, but failed as that engine would run no more than a few minutes prior to its destruction. Many other engineers were trying to solve the problem, with no success.
In 1864, Otto and Eugen Langen founded the first internal combustion engine production company, NA Otto and Cie (NA Otto and Company). Otto and Cie succeeded in creating a successful atmospheric engine that same year. The factory ran out of space and was moved to the town of Deutz, Germany in 1869 where the company was renamed to Deutz Gasmotorenfabrik AG (The Deutz Gas Engine Manufacturing Company). In 1872, Gottlieb Daimler was technical director and Wilhelm Maybach was the head of engine design. Daimler was a gunsmith who had worked on the Lenoir engine. By 1876, Otto and Langen succeeded in creating the first internal combustion engine that compressed the fuel mixture prior to combustion for far higher efficiency than any engine created to this time.
Daimler and Maybach left their employ at Otto and Cie and developed the first high-speed Otto engine in 1883. In 1885, they produced the first automobile to be equipped with an Otto engine. The Petroleum Reitwagen used a hot-tube ignition system and the fuel known as Ligroin to become the world's first vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine. It used a four-stroke engine based on Otto's design. The following year Karl Benz produced a four-stroke engined automobile that is regarded as the first car.
In 1884, Otto's company, then known as Gasmotorenfabrik Deutz (GFD), developed electric ignition and the carburetor. In 1890, Daimler and Maybach formed a company known as Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. Today, that company is Daimler-Benz.
See Otto engine for more detail.
Other articles related to "cycle, otto cycle, otto, cycles":
... A four-stroke engine (also known as four-cycle) is an internal combustion engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes—intake, compression, power, and exhaust—d ... The earliest of these to be developed is the Otto cycle engine developed in 1876 by Nikolaus August Otto in Cologne, Germany, after the operation principle described by Alphonse Beau de Rochas ... Diesel created his engine to maximize efficiency, which the Otto engine lacked ...
... The maximum thermal efficiency of a Diesel cycle is dependent on the compression ratio and the cut-off ratio ... The formula is more complex than the Otto cycle (petrol/gasoline engine) relation that has the following formula The additional complexity for the Diesel formula ... The Otto cycle by comparison has both the heat addition and rejection at constant volume ...
... The Otto Engine of 1876 An Otto engine with slide valve ignition After 14 years of research and development Otto succeeded in creating the compressed charge internal combustion engine May 9, 1876 ... Otto found a way to layer the fuel mixture into the cylinder to cause the fuel to burn in a progressive, as opposed to explosive fashion ... This engine that uses four cycles in its creation of power ...
... these conditions the first law is rewritten as Applying this to the Otto cycle the four process equations can be derived Since the first law is ... can be derived by strictly heat added and heat rejected In the Otto cycle, there is no heat transfer during the process 1-2 and 3-4 as they are reversible adiabatic processes ... Equation 2 Since the Otto cycle is an isentropic process the isentropic equations of ideal gases and the constant pressure/volume relations can be used to yield Equations ...
... The Carnot cycle is reversible and thus represents the upper limit on efficiency of an engine cycle ... Practical engine cycles are irreversible and thus have inherently lower efficiency than the Carnot efficiency when operated between the same temperatures and ... determining efficiency is how heat is added to the working fluid in the cycle, and how it is removed ...
Famous quotes containing the words cycle and/or otto:
“The cycle of the machine is now coming to an end. Man has learned much in the hard discipline and the shrewd, unflinching grasp of practical possibilities that the machine has provided in the last three centuries: but we can no more continue to live in the world of the machine than we could live successfully on the barren surface of the moon.”
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