Etruscan substantives had five cases, a singular and a plural. Not all five cases are attested for every word. Nouns merge the nominative and accusative; pronouns do not generally merge these. Gender appears in personal names (masculine and feminine) and in pronouns (animate, or either masculine and feminine, and inanimate or neuter); otherwise, it is not marked.
Unlike the Indo-European languages, Etruscan noun endings were more agglutinative, with some nouns bearing two or three agglutinated suffixes. For example, where Latin would have distinct nominative plural and dative plural endings, Etruscan would suffix the case ending to a plural marker: Latin nominative singular fili-us, "son", plural fili-i, dative plural fili-is, but Etruscan clan, clen-ar and clen-ar-aśi. Moreover, Etruscan nouns could bear multiple suffixes from the case paradigm alone: that is, Etruscan exhibited Suffixaufnahme. Pallottino calls this phenomenon "morphological redetermination", which he defines as "the typical tendency ... to redetermine the syntactical function of the form by the superposition of suffices." His example is Uni-al-θi, "in the sanctuary of Juno", where -al is a genitive ending and -θi a locative.
Steinbauer says of Etruscan that "there can be more than one marker ... to design a case, and ... the same marker can occur for more than one case."
No distinction is made between nominative and accusative of nouns. Common nouns use the unmarked root. Names of males may end in -e: Hercle (Hercules), Achle (Achilles), Tite (Titus); of females, in -i, -a or -u: Uni (Juno), Menrva (Minerva), Zipu. Names of gods may end in -s: Fufluns, Tins; or they may be the unmarked stem ending in a vowel or consonant: Aplu (Apollo), Paχa (Bacchus), Turan.
Pallottino defines two declensions based on whether the genitive ends in -s/-ś or -l. In the -s group are most noun stems ending in a vowel or a consonant: fler/fler-ś, ramtha/ramtha-ś. In the second are names of females ending in i and names of males that end s, th or n: ati/ati-al, Laris/Laris-al, Arnθ/Arnθ-al. After l or r -us instead of -s appears: Vel/Vel-us. Otherwise a vowel might be placed before the ending: Arnθ-al instead of Arnθ-l.
There is a patronymic ending: -sa or -isa, "son of", but the ordinary genitive might serve that purpose. In the genitive case morphological redetermination becomes elaborate. Given two male names, Vel and Avle, Vel Avleś means "Vel son of Avle." This expression in the genitive become Vel-uś Avles-la. Pallottino's example of a three-suffix form is Arnth-al-iśa-la.
The dative ending is -si:Tita/Tita-si.
The locative ending is -θi: Tarχna/Tarχna-l-θi.
In one case, a plural is given for clan, "son", as clenar, "sons". This shows both umlaut and an ending -ar. Plurals for cases other than nominative are made by agglutinating the case ending on clenar.
Other articles related to "nouns, noun":
... Nouns ending in -jō that have a short stem (see discussion above) behave identically to normal -ō stems, e.g ... However, long-stemmed nouns in -jō have a different nominative singular ending in -i Case bandi, bandjōs band f ... bandjōm –jōm Note that in this particular case the "long-stem" declension includes nouns with a long vowel or diphthong and no following consonant ...
... feminine singular nouns with the definite article or the number one (un) nouns or adjectives used predicatively or adverbially after yn adjectives following mor ("so"), rhy ("too") or pur ("fairly, very ... most adjectives follow the noun) nouns after the possessives dy (informal your) and ei (when it means his) an object immediately following the subject (typically after conjugated verbs) the second ...
... languages, the distribution of grammatical gender across nouns is largely arbitrary and need not coincide with natural sex ... Case, number and gender are marked on the noun as well as on articles and adjectives modifying it ... Only one sub-group of the masculine nouns actually has four distinct forms in the four cases ...
... English -er and -r suffixes (seen in hacker and lesser), in that it derives agent nouns from a verb stem ... The -age suffix Derivation of a noun from a verb stem is possible by attaching -age to the base form of any verb ... These nouns are often used with a form of "to be" rather than "to have," e.g ...
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