Equus (genus) - Classification

Classification

See also: Evolution of the horse

Family Equidae (in addition to Equus, the family includes approximately 35 other genera, all extinct)

  • Genus Equus
    • Subgenus Equus
      • Equus ferus Wild horse
        • Equus ferus caballus Domestic horse
        • Equus ferus ferus Tarpan (historically extinct)
        • Equus ferus przewalskii Przewalski's Horse or Mongolian Wild Horse or takhi
        • Equus algericus (Pleistocene of Algeria)
        • † North American caballid horses (Pleistocene; most likely synonymous with E. ferus):
          • Equus lambei Yukon Wild Ass (or Yukon Wild Horse)
          • Equus niobrarensis
        • Subgenus †Amerhippus Hoffstetter, 1950 (jr synonym subgenus Tomolabis Cope, 1892) (this subgenus and the species therin are possibly synonymous with E. ferus)
          • Equus andium
          • Equus neogeus
          • Equus fraternus Leidy, 1860 (North America)
          • Equus santaeelenae
          • Equus scotti Gidley
          • Equus niobrarensis Hay
          • Equus conversidens Owen, 1863 ("Mexican Horse") (North America)
      • †New World stilt-legged horse (all following species within the group may be synonyms or regional races of a single species)
        • Equus francisci Hay, 1915
        • Equus semiplicatus Cope, 1893 (North America)
    • Subgenus Asinus
      • Equus africanus African Wild Ass
        • Equus africanus africanus Nubian Wild Ass
        • Equus africanus asinus Domestic Donkey, Ass or Burro
        • Equus africanus atlanticus Atlas Wild Ass
        • Equus africanus somalicus Somali Wild Ass
      • Equus hemionus Onager or Asiatic Ass
        • Equus hemionus hemionus Mongolian Wild Ass, Dziggetai or Gobi Kulan
        • Equus hemionus hemippus Syrian Wild Ass
        • Equus hemionus khur Indian Wild Ass or Khur
        • Equus hemionus kulan Turkmenian Kulan
        • Equus hemionus onager Persian Onager
      • Equus kiang Kiang
        • Equus kiang chu Northern Kiang
        • Equus kiang kiang Western Kiang
        • Equus kiang holdereri Eastern Kiang
        • Equus kiang polyodon Southern Kiang
      • Equus hydruntinus European Ass (late Paleolithic of southern Europe)
      • Equus altidens (middle Pleistocene of Tadjikistan)
      • Equus tabeti (early middle Pleistocene of Algeria, known only from teeth and limb bones)
      • Equus melkiensis (late Paleolithic of Algeria, based on teeth and limb bones)
      • Equus graziosii (late Pleistocene of Italy)
    • Subgenus Dolichohippus
      • Equus grevyi Grevy's Zebra
      • Equus koobiforensis Eisenmann, 1983 (East Africa, ~2 million years (late Pliocene), similar but more derived than E.simplicidens and E.sanmeniensis
        • Equus oldowayensis Hopwood, 1937 (East Africa, late Pleiocene, early Pleistocene, likely conspecific with E.koobiforensis
    • Subgenus Hippotigris
      • Equus quagga Plains Zebra
        • Equus quagga boehmi Grant's Zebra
        • Equus quagga borensis Maneless Zebra
        • Equus quagga chapmani Chapman's Zebra
        • Equus quagga crawshayi Crawshay's Zebra
        • Equus quagga burchellii Burchell's Zebra
        • Equus quagga quagga Gmelin, 1788 Quagga (South Africa, extinction in early 20th century)
        • Equus quagga selousi Selous' Zebra
      • Equus zebra L.,1758 Mountain Zebra
        • Equus zebra hartmannae Hartmann's Mountain Zebra
        • Equus zebra zebra Cape Mountain Zebra
      • Equus mauritanicus Pomel, 1897 (Pleistocene transitional form between E. (Dolichohippus) and E. (Hippotigris), possibly via E.koobiforensis)
    • Subgenus †Parastylidequus
      • Equus parastylidens Mooser’s Horse
    • incertae sedis
      • Equus simplicidens Hagerman Horse (North American Pleiocene - earliest known species of genus Equus) (perhaps closest to Dolichohippus)
      • Equus cumminsii Cope, 1893 (North America; based on a single, 3 million year old tooth)
      • Equus livenzovensis Baihusheva, 1978 (southern Russia and western Europe, Pleiocene - highly similar to E. simplicidens
      • Equus sanmeniensis Teilhard&Piveteau, 1930 (south China, late? Pliocene; similar but more derived than E.livenzovensis
      • Equus teilhardi Eisenmann, 1975 (south China, late(?) Pliocene; similar to E.sanmeniensis but smaller, likely synonym)
      • Equus numidicus Pomel, 1897
      • Equus plicidens Owen, 1844 (late Pliocene, only teeth known)
      • Equus stenonis group
        • Equus stenonis Cocchi, 1867 (Europe to China, late Pleiocene)
          • Equus stenonis guthi (late Pliocene, France)
          • Equus stenonis senezensis (late Pliocene)
          • Equus stenonis pamirensis (=Hippotigris pamirensis) (late Pliocene, central Asia)
          • Equus stenonis petraloniensis Tsoukala (Greece - Petralona cave)
          • Equus stenonis vireti (late Pliocene)
        • Equus sivalensis (late Pleiocene (?), India; similar to E.stenonis in skull shape)
        • Equus stehlini (early Pleistocene, ~1 million years ago; similar but smaller than E. stenonis
        • Equus bressanus (early Pleistocene, ~1 million years ago; similar but much larger than E. stenonis
        • Equus sussenbornensis Wüst, 1901 (early middle Pleistocene of Europe)
        • Equus verae Sher, 1971 (middle Pleistocene of north eastern Asia)
        • Equus namadicus (middle paleolithic sites in India)
      • †subgenus Allozebra & Hesperohippus (N. American lineage of middle to late Pleistocene)
        • Equus idahoensis
        • Equus (A.) occidentalis
        • Equus (A.) excelsus
        • Equus (H.) pacificus
      • Equus complicatus
      • Equus fraternus
      • Equus major Boule (nomen dubium)
      • Equus giganteus group
        • Equus giganteus
        • Equus pectinatus
        • Equus crinidens
  • Przewalski's Horse, the only remaining type of "wild" horse that has never been domesticated

  • A domesticated horse

  • An onager, one type of wild ass

  • A pair of kiangs

  • Quagga (now extinct)

  • Plains zebra

  • Grévy's zebra

  • Equus conversidens (extinct)

Read more about this topic:  Equus (genus)

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