Modal logic is characterized by the modal operators (box p) asserting that is necessarily the case, and (diamond p) asserting that is possibly the case. Dynamic logic extends this by associating to every action the modal operators and, thereby making it a multimodal logic. The meaning of is that after performing action it is necessarily the case that holds, that is, must bring about . The meaning of is that after performing it is possible that holds, that is, might bring about . These operators are related by and, analogously to the relationship between the universal and existential quantifiers.
Dynamic logic permits compound actions built up from smaller actions. While the basic control operators of any programming language could be used for this purpose, Kleene's regular expression operators are a good match to modal logic. Given actions and, the compound action, choice, also written or, is performed by performing one of or . The compound action, sequence, is performed by performing first and then . The compound action, iteration, is performed by performing zero or more times, sequentially. The constant action or BLOCK does nothing and does not terminate, whereas the constant action or SKIP or NOP, definable as, does nothing but does terminate.
Read more about this topic: Dynamic Logic (modal Logic)
Other articles related to "language, languages":
... Macedonian (македонски јазик, makedonski jazik, ) is a South Slavic language, spoken as a first language by approximately 2–3 million people principally in the region of Macedonia and ... It is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia and an official minority language in parts of Albania, Romania and Serbia ... Standard Macedonian was implemented as the official language of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia in 1945 and has since developed a thriving literary tradition ...
... Language endangerment occurs when a language is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language ... Language loss occurs when the language has no more native speakers, and becomes a dead language ... If eventually no one speaks the language at all, it becomes an extinct language ...
... and Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian shares a considerable amount of its lexicon with these languages ... Other languages which have been in positions of power, such as Ottoman Turkish and increasingly English also provide a significant proportion of the loan words ... Prestige languages, such as Old Church Slavonic, which occupies a relationship to modern Macedonian comparable to the relationship of medieval Latin to modern Romance languages, and Russian also ...
... Arabic is the native language of majorities from Mauritania to Oman, and from Iraq to the Sudan ... As the language of the Qur'an and as a lingua franca, it is studied widely in the non-Arabic-speaking Muslim world as well ... use of Arabic script is the Maltese language, genetically a descendant of the extinct Sicilian Arabic dialect ...
... Film is considered to have its own language ... the greatest, the one who invented a new language, true to the nature of film, as it captures life as a reflection, life as a dream." Examples of the language ...
Famous quotes containing the word language:
“After all, when you come right down to it, how many people speak the same language even when they speak the same language?”
—Russell Hoban (b. 1925)
“These are our grievances which we have thus laid before his majesty with that freedom of language and sentiment which becomes a free people, claiming their rights as derived from the laws of nature, and not as the gift of their chief magistrate.”
—Thomas Jefferson (17431826)
“It is silly to call fat people gravitationally challengedMa self-righteous fetishism of language which is no more than a symptom of political frustration.”
—Terry Eagleton (b. 1943)