Domesticated Birds - Semidomesticated, Routinely Captive-bred, or Domestication Status Unclear

Semidomesticated, Routinely Captive-bred, or Domestication Status Unclear

Due to the somewhat unclear outlines of what, precisely, constitutes domestication, there are some species that may or may not be fully domesticated. There are also species that are extensively used or kept as pets by humans, but are not significantly altered from wild-type animals. Most animals on this second table are at least somewhat altered from wild animals by their extensive interactions with humans. Many could not be released into the wild, or are in some way dependent on humans.

Species and subspecies Wild ancestor Date Location of origin Purpose Image Degree and type of domestication Extent in wild vs captivity
Western honey bee (Apis mellifera), including subspecies Italian bee (Apis mellifera ligustica), European dark bee (Apis mellifera mellifera), and Carniolan honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) Western honey bee (Apis mellifera), and appropriate subspecies 4000 BC (1880s for A.m. lingustica, modern for A.m. mellifera, uncertain for A.m. carnica) Europe, Asia and Africa honey, wax, pollination Domesticated
Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) 500 BC India show, feathers, meat, landscaping, ornamental, pets, garden bird Held/tame in captivity
Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) Budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) 1850s Australia pets, show, talking bird Plumage changes, some breeds are physically larger
Corn snake (Pantherophis gutttatus) Corn snake (Pantherophis guttatus) 1960s United States pets Domesticated in captivity
Java Sparrow (Padda oryzivora) Java Sparrow (Padda oryzivora) Ming Dynasty China pets Non-wild coloration pied and fancy colored Javas from long Asian captivity lines are hand tamable
Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) Cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) 1870s Australia pets, show, talking bird
American mink (Neovison vison) American mink (Neovison vison) 19th century North America fur, pets, ratting Held/tame in captivity
Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), including subspecies Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) 2000 BC Indus Valley Civilization working, plowing, transportation, mount, hunting, show, racing, fighting, execution, ceremonies, weddings, religion semidomesticated
Addax (Addax nasomaculatus) Addax (Addax nasomaculatus) 2500 BC Egypt meat, horns, leather, skin Held/tame in captivity Small captive population, but endangered in the wild
Scimitar oryx (Oyrx dammah) Scimitar oryx (Oyrx dammah) 2320-2150 BC Egypt meat, hides, religions, ceremonies, horns Held/tame in captivity Small captive population, but nearly extinct in wild
Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) Muscovy Duck (Cairina moschata) 700–600 BC South America meat, fat, feathers, eggs, show, pets Held/tame in captivity
Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) Cochineal (Dactylopius coccus) 700–500 BC Chile, Mexico dye Held/tame in captivity
Crimsonspotted Rainbowfish (Melanotaenia duboulayi) Crimsonspotted Rainbowfish (Melanotaenia duboulayi) 1920s Eastern Australia pets, pest control Held/tame in captivity
Long-tailed Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) Long-tailed Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) 1930s Andes pets, fur, research Domesticated in captivity
Short-tailed Chinchilla (Chinchilla chinchilla) Short-tailed Chinchilla (Chinchilla chinchilla) 1930s Andes fur Raised in Captivity
Water flea (Daphnia magna) Water flea (Daphnia magna) 1930s North America, Eurasia, Africa research Held/tame in captivity
Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) 20th century Australia pets, show Domesticated in captivity
Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) Axolotl 20th century Mexico research, pets slight physical changes
Green and black poison dart frog (Dendrobates auratus) Green and Black Poison Dart Frog (Dendrobates auratus) Mid-to-late 20th century Nicaragua; Costa Rica; Panama; Colombia pets slight physical changes; loss of toxicity
Australian Green Tree Frog (Litoria caerulea) Australian Green Tree Frog late 20th century Australia pets
Argentine Horned Frog (Ceratophrys ornata) Argentine Horned Frog late 20th century Argentina pets
Cranwell's horned frog (Ceratophrys cranwelli) Cranwell's Horned Frog late 20th century Argentina pets
Common eland (Taurotragus oryx) Common eland (Taurotragus oryx) Unknown Zimbabwe, South Africa, Kenya meat, milk, leather, hides, horns Domesticated in captivity
Diamond Dove (Geopelia cuneata) Diamond Dove (Geopelia cuneata) Unknown Australia pets Domesticated in captivity
Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) 1960s United States wool, meat, milk Held/tame in captivity
Grey-banded kingsnake (Lampropeltis alterna) Grey-banded kingsnake (Lampropeltis alterna) date uncertain Texas, New Mexico, Chihuahua pets Held/tame in captivity
Central Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) Central Bearded Dragon (Pogona vitticeps) 1970s Australia pets slight physical changes
Sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) Sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) 1980s Australia pets Domesticated
Indian gray mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) Indian gray mongoose (Herpestes edwardsii) date uncertain India fighting, pest control, pets Held/tame in captivity
Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) date uncertain South America meat, pelt, skin, pets
Indian Palm Squirrel (Funambulus palmarum) Indian Palm Squirrel (Funambulus palmarum) date uncertain India pets easy to tame
Lawson's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) Lawson's Dragon (Pogona henrylawsoni) 1980s Australia pets Held/tame in captivity
Buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) Buff-tailed bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) 1980s Europe wax, pollination Held/tame in captivity
Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) date uncertain China meat, ornamental, garden bird Held/tame in captivity
Sika deer (Cervus nippon) Sika deer (Cervus nippon) Unknown Japan, China meat, antlers Held/tame in captivity
Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata) Mandarin Duck (Aix galericulata) Unknown China meat, fat, ornamental Held/tame in captivity
Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) Unknown Egypt pest control, pets Held/tame in captivity
Asiatic honey bee (Apis cerana) Asiatic honey bee (Apis cerana) Unknown South and Southeast Asia honey, pollination Domesticated in captivity
Japanese Cormorant (Phalacrocorax capillatus) Japanese Cormorant (Phalacrocorax capillatus) 960 AD Japan fishing Held/tame in captivity
Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) 960 AD China fishing Held/tame in captivity
Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) Japanese Quail (Coturnix japonica) 1100–1900 Japan meat, eggs, pets Domesticated in captivity
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) 1200–1500 Europe, Asia meat Held/tame in capivity
House cricket (Acheta domestica) House cricket (Acheta domestica) 12th century Southwestern Asia, China, Japan meat, food, fighting, pets Domesticated in captivity
European mink (Mustela lutreola) European mink (Mustela lutreola) 1800s Europe fur Held/tame in captivity
King Quail (Coturnix chinensis) King Quail (Coturnix chinensis) date uncertain Asia, Australia pets
Grey Francolin (Francolinus pondicerianus) Grey Francolin (Francolinus pondicerianus) date uncertain India, Pakistan meat, pets, fighting Held/tame in captivity
Lowland Paca (Cuniculus paca) Lowland Paca (Cuniculus paca) Unknown Mexico, Argentina meat, pets Held/tame in captivity
Steppe Lemming (Lagurus lagurus) Steppe Lemming (Lagurus lagururs) Unknown Steppes pets
Degu (Octodon degus) Degu (Octodon degus) 1990s Chilean Andes pets, research
Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) 1990s Mongolia pets, research Held/tame in captivity
Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) Crucian carp (Carassius carassius) 2000s England, Russia meat, pets
Indian honey bee (Apis cerana indica) Indian honey bee (Apis cerana indica) Unknown India honey, pollination Held/tame in captivity
Semi-domesticated Reindeer Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) 3000 BC Asian subarctic. meat, milk, transportation, working, draft, mount, hides, racing, leather, antlers Semidomesticated
White Cockatoo (Cacatua alba) White Cockatoo (Cacatua alba) Tang Dynasty China pets, show
Fallow Deer (Dama dama) Fallow Deer (Dama dama) 1000 BC Mediterranean Basin meat, hides, antlers domesticated
European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) European medicinal leech (Hirudo medicinalis) 800 BC Europe, Asia bloodletting, surgery
Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) Rose-ringed Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) Unknown Africa, Asia pets, talking bird
Roman Snail (Helix pomatia) Roman Snail (Helix pomatia) 100 AD Europe meat
Stingless bee (Melipona beecheii) Stingless bee (Melipona beecheii) 180 AD Mexico, Amazon Basin honey, pollination Semidomesticated
Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) Mute Swan (Cygnus olor) 1000-1500 Europe meat, landscaping, feathers, garden bird Semidomesticated
Ostrich (Struthio camelus) Ostrich (Struthio camelus) 19th century Africa meat, eggs, feathers, leather, fat, oil, mount, racing Semidomesticated
Common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) Common fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) 1910s Australia, South Africa research, food
Yellow-collared Lovebird (Agapornis personatus) Yellow-collared Lovebird (Agapornis personatus) 1920s Tanzania pets
Fischer's Lovebird (Agapornis fischeri) Fischer's Lovebird (Agapornis fischeri) 1920s East-Central Africa pets
Turquoise Parrot (Neophema pulchella) Turquoise Parrot (Neophema pulchella) 20th century Australia pets, show
African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) 1950s South Africa pets, research
Sea-Monkey (Artemia salina x nyos) Brine shrimp (Artemia salina) 1950s Lake Urmia, Iran pets
American bison (Bison bison) American bison (Bison bison) 20th century North America meat, leather, hides Semidomesticated
Ball python (Python regius) Ball python (Python regius) 1960s Africa pets Captive bred
Eclectus Parrot (Eclectus roratus) Eclectus Parrot (Eclectus roratus) 1980s Australia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Solomon Islands pets
Salmon-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) Salmon-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) 1980s Maluku Islands pets, show, talking bird
Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) 1990s South America meat, eggs, feathers, leather, fat, oil Semidomesticated
Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) Emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) 1990s Australia meat, eggs, feathers, leather, fat, oil Semidomesticated
Pale Gerbil (Gerbillus perpallidus) Pale Gerbil (Gerbillus perpallidus) Unknown Egypt pets
Persian jird (Meriones persicus) Persian jird (Meriones persicus) Unknown Iran pets
Fat-tailed Gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi) Fat-tailed Gerbil (Pachyuromys duprasi) Unknown Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria pets
Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) Green Iguana (Iguana iguana) 1990s South America pets, meat, leather Captive bred
Black Spiny-tailed Iguana (Ctenosaura similis) Black Spiny-tailed Iguana (Ctenosaura similis) date uncertain Central America pets, meat Captive bred
Leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) Leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) 20th century Pakistan pets slight physical modification
Green Tree Python (Morelia viridis) Green Tree Python (Morelia viridis) mid 1990s New Guinea, Indonesia, Australia pets Captive bred
Western Rosella (Platycercus icterotis) Western Rosella (Platycercus icterotis) Unknown Southwest Australia pets
Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii) Red-tailed Black Cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus banksii) late 1990s Australia pets
Gouldian Finch (Erythrura gouldiae) Gouldian Finch (Erythrura gouldiae) late 1990s Australia pets, show
Rusty-spotted cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus) Rusty-spotted cat (Prionailurus rubiginosus) date uncertain India, Sri Lanka pets easy to domesticate
Star Finch (Neochmia ruficauda) Star Finch (Neochmia ruficauda) date uncertain Australia pets, show
Eurasian Siskin (Carduelis spinus) Eurasian Siskin (Carduelis spinus) date uncertain Europe, Asia pets, singing
Crested Gecko (Rhacodactylus ciliatus) Crested Gecko (Rhacodactylus ciliatus) Unknown New Caledonia pets Captive bred Somewhat common in captivity, nearly extinct in wild
Common kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus) Common kusimanse (Crossarchus obscurus) Unknown West Africa pets Captive bred
Kissing gourami (Helostoma temminckii) Kissing gourami (Helostoma temminckii) Unknown Thailand, Indonesia meat, pets Domesticated

Read more about this topic:  Domesticated Birds

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