1) it replaces the preposition a by another preposition, as em ("in") or para ("to"). If, with replacement, the definite article a ("the") is still possible, then the crasis applies. Examples:
- Pedro viajou à Região Nordeste: with grave accent, because it equivalent to "Pedro traveled 'to the' Northeast Region". Here, para a Região Nordeste would also be used.
- O autor dedicou o livro a sua esposa: without a grave accent in Brazilian Portuguese, because it is equivalent to "the autor dedicated the book 'to' his wife". A consistent use according to the rules in Brazil would not allow para a sua esposa be used instead. In European Portuguese, nevertheless, rules change, and it is O autor dedicou o livro à sua esposa, albeit it can not be explained translanting to English as both sentences carry the same meaning. In Portuguese-speaking countries other than Brazil, para a sua esposa is to be deemed standard usage.
2) in a supposed situation the nominal complement is exchanged, after "a", from a feminine noun for a masculine noun and if with the exchange, it is necessary to use the combination 'ao' (that is used naturally by native speakers), then the crasis applies. Examples:
- Prestou relevantes serviços à comunidade, he/she paid outstanding services to the community: with a grave accent, because when one changes the object to a masculine noun – "Prestou relevantes serviços ao povo" he/she paid outstanding services to the people - the combination "ao" ("to the") appears.
- "Chegarei daqui a uma hora" I will arrive in an hour: without crasis, because when you replace the object to a masculine noun - "Chegarei daqui a um minuto" I will arrive in a minute - the combination "ao" does not appear (as "um/uma", indefinite articles, appear instead of "o/a").
Important: The grave accent is never used before masculine words (nouns, names, pronouns, etc.), verbs, personal pronouns, numerals, plural nouns without the use of the feminine plural definite article as ("the"), city names that do not use a feminine article, the word casa ("house") when it has the meaning of one's own home, the word terra ("earth") when it has the meaning of soil, and indefinite, personal, relative or demonstrative pronouns (except the third person and aquele(s) or aquela(s)); between identical nouns§ such as dia a dia "day by day", "everyday", "daily life", gota a gota "dropwise", "drip", and cara a cara "face to face"; and after prepositions.
§ To the exception of
É preciso declarar guerra à guerra! (It is needed to declare war on war!)
É preciso dar mais vida à vida. (One needs to give more life to life)
Other articles related to "further rules, rules":
... A player can push their opponent′s marbles which are in an adjacent space to their own with an in-line move only ... They can only push if the pushing line has more marbles than the pushed line (three can push two or one two can push one) ...
... Eu fui até Bahia de carro ... ("I traveled to Bahia by car") ...
... Phrase-structure rules are a way to describe a given language's syntax and are closely associated with the early stages of Transformational Grammar ... A grammar that uses phrase structure rules is a type of phrase structure grammar - except in computer science, where it is known as just a grammar, usually context-free ... Phrase structure rules as they are commonly employed operate according to the constituency relation and a grammar that employs phrase structures rules is therefore a constituency grammar and as such, it stands in ...
... Transformation rules Propositional calculus Rules of inference Modus ponens Modus tollens Biconditional introduction Biconditional elimination Conjunction introduction Simplification ... There are several rules of inference which utilize the existential quantifier ...
... This is an in-depth discussion of the rules of go ... has been a certain amount of variation in the rules of go over time, and from place to place ... This article discusses those sets of rules broadly similar to the ones currently in use in East Asia ...
Famous quotes containing the word rules:
“Today the tyrant rules not by club or fist, but, disguised as a market researcher, he shepherds his flocks in the ways of utility and comfort.”
—Marshall McLuhan (19111980)
“The great challenge which faces us is to assure that, in our society of big-ness, we do not strangle the voice of creativity, that the rules of the game do not come to overshadow its purpose, that the grand orchestration of society leaves ample room for the man who marches to the music of another drummer.”
—Hubert H. Humphrey (19111978)