The Columbia River is the largest river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. The river rises in the Rocky Mountains of British Columbia, Canada. It flows northwest and then south into the U.S. state of Washington, then turns west to form most of the border between Washington and the state of Oregon before emptying into the Pacific Ocean. The river is 1,243 miles (2,000 km) long, and its largest tributary is the Snake River. Its drainage basin is roughly the size of France and extends into seven U.S. states and a Canadian province.
By volume, the Columbia is the fourth-largest river in the United States; it has the greatest flow of any North American river draining into the Pacific. The river's heavy flow and its relatively steep gradient gives it tremendous potential for the generation of electricity. The 14 hydroelectric dams on the Columbia's main stem and many more on its tributaries produce more hydroelectric power than those of any other North American river.
The Columbia and its tributaries have been central to the region's culture and economy for thousands of years. They have been used for transportation since ancient times, linking the many cultural groups of the region. The river system hosts many species of anadromous fish, which migrate between freshwater habitats and the saline Pacific Ocean. These fish—especially the salmon species—provided the core subsistence for natives; in past centuries, traders from across western North America traveled to the Columbia to trade for fish.
In the late 18th century, a private American ship became the first non-indigenous vessel to enter the river; it was followed by a British explorer, who navigated past the Oregon Coast Range into the Willamette Valley. In the following decades, fur trading companies used the Columbia as a key transportation route. Overland explorers entered the Willamette Valley through the scenic but treacherous Columbia River Gorge, and pioneers began to settle the valley in increasing numbers, following both routes to enter it. Steamships along the river linked communities and facilitated trade; the arrival of railroads in the late 19th century, many running along the river, supplemented these links.
Since the late 19th century, public and private sectors have heavily developed the river. The development, commonly referred to as taming or harnessing of the river, has been massive and multi-faceted. To aid ship and barge navigation, locks have been built along the lower Columbia and its tributaries, and dredging has opened, maintained, and enlarged shipping channels. Since the early 20th century, dams have been built across the river for the purposes of power generation, navigation, irrigation, and flood control. Today, a dam-impounded reservoir lies along nearly every U.S. mile of the once free-flowing river, and much of the Canadian stretch has been impounded as well. Production of nuclear power has taken place at two sites along the river. Plutonium for nuclear weapons was produced for decades at the Hanford Site, which is now the most contaminated nuclear site in the U.S. All these developments have had a tremendous impact on river environments, perhaps most notably through industrial pollution and barriers to fish migration.
Other articles related to "columbia river, river, columbia, rivers":
... Canadian Pacific Railway crossed the Columbia River ... was far down the lakes at Sproats Landing, BC, where the Kootenay River joins the Columbia ... The Kootenay River connected to the Nelson Arm of Kootenay Lake ...
... See also List of tributaries of the Columbia River The Columbia receives more than 60 significant tributaries ... The four largest that empty directly into the Columbia (measured either by discharge or by size of watershed) are the Snake River (mostly in Idaho), the ... Its discharge is nearly equal to the Columbia's at the rivers' confluence ...
... Steamboats and other vessels on the Upper Columbia River Name Year Built Registra- tion # Mills # Gross Tons Reg. 63.5 ft (19 m) 19 ft (6 m) 3.2 ft (1 m) 8" x 36" Returned to Kootenay River, spring 1894 (see chart below for final disposition) ... (40 m) 26 ft (8 m) 4.0 ft (1 m) 14" x 48" Transited Baillie-Grohman Canal in 1902 from Kootenay River to Columbia River ...
... Sheridan State Scenic Corridor is a state park in the Columbia River Gorge, west of Cascade Locks, Oregon ... Eagle Creek-Cascade Locks segment of the Historic Columbia River Highway State Trail in 1998, it has become easily accessible by foot or bicycle ... It served as a wayside on US 30 - the Historic Columbia River Highway - until 1960, when the new I-84 freeway replaced the old road, cutting off access except through the national forest ...
... The Columbia River Crossing (CRC) was a joint freeway megaproject from 2005-2013 between Oregon and Washington, which proposed to widen and modernize U.S ... Interstate 5 where it crossed the Columbia River ...
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