Colloidal crystals are receiving increased attention, largely due to their mechanisms of ordering and self-assembly, cooperative motion, structures similar to those observed in condensed matter by both liquids and solids, and structural phase transitions. Phase equilibrium has been considered within the context of their physical similarities, with appropriate scaling, to elastic solids. Observations of the interparticle separation distance has shown a decrease on ordering. This led to a re-evaluation of Langmuir's beliefs about the existence of a long-range attractive component in the interparticle potential.
Colloidal crystals have found application in optics as photonic crystals. Photonics is the science of generating, controlling, and detecting photons (packets of light), particularly in the visible and near Infrared, but also extending to the Ultraviolet, Infrared and far IR portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The science of photonics includes the emission, transmission, amplification, detection, modulation, and switching of lightwaves over a broad range of frequencies and wavelengths. Photonic devices include electro-optic components such as lasers (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) and optical fiber. Applications include telecommunications, information processing, illumination, spectroscopy, holography, medicine (surgery, vision correction, endoscopy), military (guided missile) technology, agriculture and robotics.
Polycrystalline colloidal structures have been identified as the basic elements of submicrometre colloidal materials science. Molecular self-assembly has been observed in various biological systems and underlies the formation of a wide variety of complex biological structures. This includes an emerging class of mechanically superior biomaterials based on microstructure features and designs found in nature.
The principal mechanical characteristics and structures of biological ceramics, polymer composites, elastomers, and cellular materials are being re-evaluated, with an emphasis on bioinspired materials and structures. Traditional approaches focus on design methods of biological materials using conventional synthetic materials. The uses have been identified in the synthesis of bioinspired materials through processes that are characteristic of biological systems in nature. This includes the nanoscale self-assembly of the components and the development of hierarchical structures.
Read more about this topic: Colloidal Crystal
Other articles related to "trends, trend":
... Every year 6.7 million tons of tobacco are produced throughout the world ... The top producers of tobacco are China (39.6%), India (8.3%), Brazil (7.0%) and the United States (4.6%) ...
... the early 20th century the product of a small leadlighting studio generally reflected the trends in modern architecture, and was produced with great ... on behalf of the craftsperson, and a lack of awareness of stylistic trends ... to display a mastery of the traditional technical skills, an awareness of design trends and original creative artistry ...
... Several new trends are emerging ... Another trend, which has not been well met to date by visualization researchers, is for algorithms to be combined with usability studies to assure that ... will discuss current research trends in visualization as well as briefly discuss trends in U.S ...
... A market trend is a tendency of a financial market to move in a particular direction over time ... These trends are classified as secular for long time frames, primary for medium time frames, and secondary for short time frames ... Traders identify market trends using technical analysis, a framework which characterizes market trends as predictable price tendencies within the market when price reaches ...
... He follows color trends in fashion (his favorite is green), but in event design, he explains, "I do not know what the trends are because I set the trends." A florist by background, he usually designs ...
Famous quotes containing the word trends:
“A point has been reached where the peoples of the Americas must take cognizance of growing ill-will, of marked trends toward aggression, of increasing armaments, of shortening tempersa situation which has in it many of the elements that lead to the tragedy of general war.... Peace is threatened by those who seek selfish power.”
—Franklin D. Roosevelt (18821945)
“Thanks to recent trends in the theory of knowledge, history is now better aware of its own worth and unassailability than it formerly was. It is precisely in its inexact character, in the fact that it can never be normative and does not have to be, that its security lies.”
—Johan Huizinga (18721945)
“Power-worship blurs political judgement because it leads, almost unavoidably, to the belief that present trends will continue. Whoever is winning at the moment will always seem to be invincible.”
—George Orwell (19031950)