4potential
The EM field tensor can also be written
where
is the fourpotential and
is the fourposition.
Using the 4potential in the Lorenz gauge, an alternative manifestlycovariant formulation can be found in a single equation (a generalization of an equation due to Bernhard Riemann by Arnold Sommerfeld, known as the Riemannâ€“Sommerfeld equation, or the covariant form of the Maxwell equations):

Maxwell's equations (Covariant Lorenz gauge formulation)
where is the d'Alembertian operator, or fourLaplacian. For a more comprehensive presentation of these topics, see Covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism.
Read more about this topic: Classical Electromagnetism And Special Relativity, Covariant Formulation in Vacuum
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