Civilization

Civilization (or civilisation) is a sometimes controversial term that has been used in several related ways. Primarily, the term has been used to refer to the material and instrumental side of human cultures that are complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor. Such civilizations are generally hierarchical and urbanized. In a classical context, people were called "civilized" to set them apart from barbarians, savages, and primitive peoples while in a modern-day context, "civilized peoples" have been contrasted with indigenous peoples or tribal societies.

There is a tendency to use the term in a less strict way, to mean approximately the same thing as "culture" and therefore, the term can more broadly refer to any important and clearly defined human society. Still, even when used in this second sense, the word is often restricted to apply only to societies that have attained a particular level of advancement—especially the founding of cities.

The level of advancement of a civilization is often measured by its progress in agriculture, long-distance trade, occupational specialization, a special governing class, and urbanism. Aside from these core elements, a civilization is often marked by any combination of a number of secondary elements, including a developed transportation system, writing, standardized measurement, currency, contractual and tort-based legal systems, characteristic art and architecture, mathematics, enhanced scientific understanding, metallurgy, political structures, and organized religion.

Read more about CivilizationEtymology, Characteristics, Cultural Identity, Complex Systems, Future, Fall of Civilizations

Other articles related to "civilization, civilizations":

Armies Of Arcana - The Armies - Humans
... to their wild cousins with knowledge of elven civilization - for this reason, much of human civilization works like elven civilization ...
Civilization IV: Warlords
... Civilization IV Warlords is the first official expansion pack of the critically acclaimed turn-based strategy video game Civilization IV ...
Civilization Fanatics Center
... Civilization Fanatics Center (abbreviated CFC and CivFanatics) is a fan website for the Civilization series of computer and video games published by a variety of companies (depending on the game ...
Swaraj Prakash Gupta - Publications
... Frontiers of the Indus Civilization (B.B ... The lost Sarasvati and the Indus Civilization ... The dawn of civilization, in G.C ...
Civilization - History - Contemporary
... bloc, Major world religions, world language, and The Clash of Civilizations Western World Europe the Americas Latin America Anglosphere Eastern Orthodox Church countries Greece Russia ...

Famous quotes containing the word civilization:

    We used to speak of Western civilization with great satisfaction. Now we avoid the subject.
    Mason Cooley (b. 1927)

    The face of nature and civilization in this our country is to a certain point a very sufficient literary field. But it will yield its secrets only to a really grasping imagination.... To write well and worthily of American things one need even more than elsewhere to be a master.
    Henry James (1843–1916)

    It is a fearful thing to lead this great peaceful people into war, into the most terrible and disastrous of all wars, civilization itself seeming to be in the balance. But the right is more precious than peace, and we shall fight for the things we have always carried closest to our hearts.
    Woodrow Wilson (1856–1924)