Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from unwarranted infringement by governments and private organizations, and ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the state without discrimination or repression.
Civil rights include the ensuring of peoples' physical and mental integrity, life and safety; protection from discrimination on grounds such as race, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, color, ethnicity, religion, or disability; and individual rights such as privacy, the freedoms of thought and conscience, speech and expression, religion, the press, assembly and movement.
Political rights include natural justice (procedural fairness) in law, such as the rights of the accused, including the right to a fair trial; due process; the right to seek redress or a legal remedy; and rights of participation in civil society and politics such as freedom of association, the right to assemble, the right to petition, the right of self-defense, and the right to vote.
Civil and political rights form the original and main part of international human rights. They comprise the first portion of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (with economic, social and cultural rights comprising the second portion). The theory of three generations of human rights considers this group of rights to be "first-generation rights", and the theory of negative and positive rights considers them to be generally negative rights.
The phrase "civil rights" is a translation of Latin ius civis (rights of citizens). Roman citizens could be either free (libertas) or servile (servitus), but they all had rights in law. After the Edict of the Milan in 313, these rights included the freedom of religion. Roman legal doctrine was lost during the Middle Ages, but claims of universal rights could still be made based on religious doctrine. According to the leaders of Kett's Rebellion (1549), "all bond men may be made free, for God made all free with his precious blood-shedding."
In the 17th century, English common law judge Sir Edward Coke revived the idea of rights based on citizenship by arguing that Englishmen had historically enjoyed such rights. The English Bill of Rights was adopted in 1689. The Virginia Declaration of Rights, by George Mason and James Madison, was adopted in 1776. The Virginia declaration is the direct ancestor and model for the U.S. Bill of Rights (1789).
In early 19th century Britain, the phrase "civil rights" most commonly referred to the problem of legal discrimination against Catholics. In the House of Commons support for the British civil rights movement was divided, many more largely known politicians supported the discrimination towards Catholics. Independent MPs (such as Lewis Eves and Matthew Mountford) applied pressure on the larger parties to pass the civil rights act of the 1920s.
In the 1860s, Americans adapted this usage to newly freed blacks. Congress enacted civil rights acts in 1866, 1871, 1875, 1957, 1960, 1964, 1968, and 1991.
Other articles related to "civil rights, civil, rights":
... Questions about civil and political rights have frequently emerged ... the government intervene to protect individuals from infringement on their rights by other individuals, or from corporations — e.g ... employment discrimination in the private sector be dealt with? Political theory deals with civil and political rights ...
... in the South and how, if at all, to protect the civil rights of black southerners ... on behalf of blacks was equally ineffective when the Supreme Court struck down the Civil Rights Act of 1875 in an 1883 decision, Arthur expressed his disagreement with the decision in a ...
... through the Community Legal Resource Network (CLRN), the Center on Latino and Latina Rights and Equality (CLORE), the Center for Urban Environmental Reform (CUER), the ... The Haywood Burns Chair in Civil Rights brings prominent visiting civil rights figures to the Law School in memory of its second dean, a national civil rights scholar and activist ... Center on Latino and Latina Rights and Equality (CLORE) Focuses on issues impacting the Latino community in the United States, with the goal of developing progressive strategies for legal reform ...
... Greensboro sit-ins International Civil Rights Center and Museum F ... of African Americans Jim Crow laws Redlining Great Migration Civil Rights Movement 1896–1954 / 1955–1968 Second Great Migration Afrocentrism New Great Migration Post-Civil Rights era ...
... Civil rights may refer to several different things Civil rights movement, various campaigns in many countries, and on a transnational scale, for ... of belief, speech, association, and the press and political participation Legal rights are rights that are bestowed by nations on those within their jurisdiction they are sometimes also called civil rights in common ... Contrast with natural rights or human rights, which many scholars claim that individuals have by nature of being born Civil rights, in civil law jurisdictions, are rights or powers which can be exercised ...
Famous quotes by civil rights:
“...I was confronted with a virile idealism, an awareness of what man must have for manliness, dignity, and inner liberty which, by contrast, made me see how easy living had made my own group into childishly unthinking people. The Negros struggles and despairs have been like fertilizer in the fields of his humanity, while we, like protected children with all our basic needs supplied, have given our attention to superficialities.”
—Sarah Patton Boyle, U.S. civil rights activist and author. The Desegregated Heart, part 1, ch. 19 (1962)