Christianity Of The Middle Ages
The history of medieval Christianity traces Christianity during the Middle Ages - the period after the Fall of Rome (c.476) until the Protestant Reformation (c.1517), considered the start of the modern era of Christianity.
Among the dioceses, five held special eminence: Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria, generally referred to as the Pentarchy. The prestige of most of these sees depended in part on their apostolic founders, or in the case of Byzantium/Constantinople, that it was the new seat (New Rome) of the continuing Roman or Byzantine Empire. These bishops considered themselves the spiritual successors of those apostles. In addition, all five cities were Early centers of Christianity.
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... For the next four hundred years, it would be confined within a hostile Islamic world, with which it had little in common religiously or culturally ... This is, in part, due to this geographical and intellectual confinement that the voice of Eastern Orthodoxy was not heard during the Reformation in sixteenth century Europe ...
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